Presentation on theme: "September 21, 2004 1 Growth and Development of Cities: Week 5. Urban Spatial Structure URBS 310."— Presentation transcript:
September 21, 2004 1 Growth and Development of Cities: Week 5. Urban Spatial Structure URBS 310
September 21, 20042 Urban Land Use Theory Agricultural Land Use Theory (Von Th Ü nen) – Early 1800s. A particular type of production depends on three items: 1) distance to the market (perishable close to the market; more extensive crops farther from the market) 2) selling prices at the market 3) land rent – Specialize in producing the ag. products yielding the highest land rent (economic rent) return at the particular location.
September 21, 20043 Urban Land Use Theory Graphing Bid-Rent Curves – Economic rent (monetary return from producing a particular good after all costs were deducted) – Bid rent curve (relationship between economic rent and distance from the market)
September 21, 20049 Population Density Gradient Modified Negative Exponential (Bruce Newling) – d i = d o e +bx-cx(^2) – ln d i = ln d o + bx – cx 2
September 21, 200410 Population Density Gradient
September 21, 200411 Population Density Gradient Crater Effect: depressed level of density in the center Density Rim: the peak
September 21, 200412 Change in Population Density Gradient Patterns in North American Cities
September 21, 200413 Three Models of Urban Land Use Graphic prepared by Department of Geography and Earth Sciences, University of North Carolina at Charlotte.
September 21, 200414 Concentric Zone Model E.W. Burgess, a sociologist, a study of Chicago, 1925. A set of concentric circles. Zone 1: CBD Zone 2: Factory, slum, ethnic community (transition zone or gray zone) Zone 3: Lower income working people’s homes Zone 4: Middle income housng Zone 5: High income housing Zone 10: Commuting
September 21, 200415 Sector Model Homer Hoyt, a land economist, a study of patterns in over 100 cities, 1939 Once similar land uses emerge around the CBD, activities remain in the area and extend over time in the same direction (following rail, highway arteries, high or llow ground, clustering on the same side of the city). High income housing areas are dominant in urban growth.
September 21, 200416 Mutilple Nuclei Model Chauncy Harris and Edward Ullman, geographers, 1945. Land uses evolve at several nodes or focal points. Each node has a special function – commercial, industrial, residential.
September 21, 200417 Urban Realms Model James Vance, 1964. Peter Muller & Others Applied to LA Region & greater NY Pepperoni Pizza Emergence of large self-sufficient suburban sectors.
September 21, 200418 Social Area Analysis Eshref Shevky, Marily Williams,a nd Wendell Bell, sociologists, 1949. A theory of social differentiation. This theory shows how family characteristics, economic status, and ethnic patterns interrelate to produce distinct spatial patterns within the city. Use three constructs: social rank (economic status), urbanization (family status), and segregation (ethnic status).
September 21, 200419 Optional Assignment 4 (Due on 10/5) 1. Draw a chart of population density gradients for 2000 and 2030 using xy scatter function in MS Excel. Determine whether the form of population density model is negative exponential or modified negative exponential. Interpret the change of the population density pattern between 2000 and 2030. 2. Draw a chart of employment density gradients for 2000 and 2030 using xy scatter function in MS Excel. Determine whether the form of employment density model is negative exponential or modified negative exponential. Interpret the change of the employment density pattern between 2000 and 2030. The excel data for assignment 4 are available in the class webpage. Turn in 1 page answer in a MS Word format.