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URBAN MORPHOLOGY some (very general) geometrical regularities

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Presentation on theme: "URBAN MORPHOLOGY some (very general) geometrical regularities"— Presentation transcript:

1 URBAN MORPHOLOGY some (very general) geometrical regularities
[graphics from The Human Mosaic by Terry Jordan-Bychkov and Mona Domosh]

2 Why model urban morphology?
To explain urban processes To permit comparison between cities To help predict urban changes Not a good strategy for predicting small-scale variations and peculiarities in the urban fabric

3 Zone Model

4 Zone Model Ernest Burgess 1920s
Sociologist at the University of Chicago Invasion and succession drove formation of concentric rings An ecological model, with ethnic groups as the species His model included “Little Sicily,” Chinatown, Deutschland, “underworld roomers,” “single-family dwellings,” and “bungalow section” Pertained to early 20th c. Chicago in time of European immigration

5 Zone Model (additional factors)
Burgess’ model is obsolete now, partly because of changes in theoretical approach and partly because of changes in the city Still, zones appear because accessibility drives land rent and land in the CBD remains more valuable than in the periphery As we will see there are now multiple nuclei different land uses benefit different amounts from accessibility Different distance-decay slopes retail (steepest slope) factories warehouses housing (most shallow slope)

6 The logic behind the model

7 Actual Land Values in San Francisco 1926-27
Note prominent shopping corridors complicating the zonal pattern and driving the formation of sectors

8 Types of housing reflect land rent
Montreal, Canada

9 the CBD

10 The Transition Zone Core Frame
Zone of assimilation (residential gentrification and landuse transformation) Zone of discard

11 Suburban strip-mall (middle income residential)
The ethnic theme (Vietnamese) does not disrupt the essential features of this place.

12 New neighborhoods (commuter residential)

13 Sector Model

14 Old industrial development axis
Canal de Lachine, Montreal Old linear feature dating from 19th c. Enduring area of working-class housing

15 Sector Model Homer Hoyt 1930s
wedges form along transportation corridors railroads & canals lined by industrial districts main roads & some waterfronts lined by houses of the wealthy Households of different income and ethnic groups filter towards outer edge in the pre-established direction Vacancy chain Freeways do not follow this pattern why not?

16 Sectors and zones in a real city (Chicago)
What accounts for the high-income sector north of the CBD?

17 Multi-nucleated metropolis (Harris & Ullman)
Why are some industrial regions located in the transition zone and others are at the outskirts of the city? (hint: think of economic utility in conjunction with urban growth)

18 Low-rent residential (DC)

19 Decentralized city What might be happening near to the pedestrian mall?

20 Festival marketplace (Quincy Market, Boston)

21 Decentralized city Why is the newest housing separated from the rest of the city?

22 Leapfrog development

23 Office park locations in Atlanta, GA

24 Office park

25 Gated Community What are 3 factors that determine where the richest families will live?

26 Factors affecting where the richest families will live
lower cost of land newer infrastructure access to desired facilities and geographical locations (what are these?) negative perception of certain social groups (racism and classism) status-seeking behavior willingness and ability to commute

27 Factors affecting where the poorest families will live
scarcity of affordable housing inability to avoid inadequate or decaying infrastructure inability to maximize access to desired facilities spatial avoidance by those in more favored groups ability/inability to commute (creates two zones of low-income housing)

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