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Ch. 13 Key Issue 2 Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?

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Presentation on theme: "Ch. 13 Key Issue 2 Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Ch. 13 Key Issue 2 Where Are People Distributed Within Urban Areas?

2 Models of Urban Structure Not distributed randomly; cluster depending on social characteristics – generalizations Each model can be applied to determine why people live where they do in a city – Concentric zone – Sector – Multiple nuclei

3 Concentric Zone Model (CZM) E.W. Burgess City grows in “rings” 1.CBD- non residential 2.Transition- industry/poorer housing 3.Working class homes- older homes 4.Better residences- newer homes, middle class 5.Commuters zone- suburbs for CBD workers

4 CZM Invasion and Succession – New immigrants move to the oldest housing near the center of the city and pushed earlier groups outward (towards suburbs) – Cycle would repeat itself: poor immigrants to the center, wealthy can then move outwards


6 Sector Model Homer Hoyt City develops and expands out in sectors (wedges) Certain areas are more attractive for activities – Industry along transportation lines – High income housing along water


8 Multiple Nuclei Model Harris and Ullman City revolves around more than one center (node) Activities either attract to or avoid certain nodes – University will attract different services than airport Incompatible activities avoid clustering – High-class housing and industry


10 Applying the Models Social area analysis – Using census data to map out what neighborhoods various types of people live Combine the models to get the most accurate representation of why people live in certain areas of a city – People prefer to live near others with similar characteristics

11 Applying the Models*** Concentric Zone (2 Families) – Same ethnicity and income – Home owner likely in outer ring – Renter likely in an inner ring


13 Darker rings outside represent the suburbs (homeowners) in the commuter’s zone

14 Applying the Models Sector Model (2 families) – Both own homes – Higher income family will live in different sector than lower income family


16 Dark wedge extending from CBD represents high-income house holds

17 Applying the Models Multiple Nuclei – Same racial or ethnic background likely to live near each other – Growth of automobile and suburbs creates “Urban realms”- independent regions tied to a “suburban downtown” Daily activities of many people occur within a limited section of the larger city – You don’t always go to DT St. Pete for long range services! Cities are made up of small "realms" which are self-sufficient urban areas with independent focal points (nodes).



20 Minorities occupying nodes- possibly in zones 3 or 4 of the model

21 Applying the Models Each model represents certain characteristics of a city better: – Homeowner vs renter (CZM) – Incomes (Sector) – Ethnicity (MN) Combining them puts the entire picture together We can now identify in which part of Dallas a 1) high income, 2) Asian-American 3) homeowner most likely lives

22 1. High Income

23 2. Non- Hispanic/African- American (Asian- American?)

24 3. Homeowner

25 What about a: 1) home-owning 2) low-income 3) African American family?




29 Applying the Models Outside North America America urban areas differ from others in the world – European cities – LDCs

30 Models in European Cities Wealthy still live in inner rings, not jut suburbs Sector model: wealthy extend out in a wedge from CBD – Live closer to palace (historically); or in restored older buildings (now) Low income residents more likely on the outskirts of city – Historical vertical segregation in cities: wealthy on bottom floors, poor in basement or attic – Poor moved closer to factories with Industrial Revolution, away from wealthy

31 European Cities Effects of low income displacement – Face longer commutes to cities from suburbs on public transportation – Inhabitants are displaced residents from the cities (persons of color, new immigrant from Africa and Asia) Europe encourages high rise apartments in suburbs – Prevent suburban sprawl seen in US – Attract tourists to historic inner city


33 Models in LDCs Poor in suburbs, wealth in inner city and extending wedge – Remnant of European colonial policies

34 Cities Since Independence Migrating towards cities to find work – Squatter settlements LDCs cannot handle population growth and high migration Few services/bad infrastucture (schools, roads, sewers) Griffin and Ford- Latin American City Model – Wealthy inhabit a sector (spine), service attractive to wealthy will cluster here Transportation lines Physical factors: high elevation, views, beaches



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