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Models of Urban Structure

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Presentation on theme: "Models of Urban Structure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Models of Urban Structure

2 Urban Components -CBD (central business district): location of skyscrapers and companies (would always be the center of the 3 urban models, many people commute, few actually live there) -Central city: urban area that is not suburban; generally the older or original city surrounded by the newer suburbs. -Inner city: urban area around the CBD; typically poorer and more run down in the US and other long-developed states; typically more rich upscale in less-developed states. -Ghetto: inner cities that become dilapidated centers of poverty, as affluent whites move out of the suburbs (white flight) and immigrants and poorer people vie for scarce jobs and resources. -

3 Changes in Cities in the U.S.
U.S. population has been moving out of the city centers to the suburbs: suburbanization and counterurbanization Developed Countries: suburbanization wealthy move to suburbs automobiles and roads; ‘American Dream’ better services counterurbanization idyllic settings cost of land for retirement slow pace, yet high tech connections to services and markets U.S. intraregional migration during 1990s.

4 Inner Cities – White Flight
Inner-city physical problems Deterioration process Urban renewal Inner-city social problems Underclass Culture of poverty Blockbusting Redlining

5 Three Classical Models of Urban Structure

6 Concentric Zone Model Ernest Burgess, 1920’s City of Chicago

7 Concentric Zone Model Zone A: CBD is here
Transportation infrastructure converges Most tertiary employment Zone B: Industrial activities Adjacent to CBD, labor and markets Port sites and rail yards

8 Concentric Zone Model Zone C: Low income housing
Constantly being converted to other uses due to expanding manufacturing and industrial activities First generation immigrants Zone D: residential zone dominated by working class Second generation immigrants Near employment

9 Concentric Zone Model Zone E: Higher quality housing
Longer commuter costs Zone F: outside zone E High class expensive housing Rural, suburban setting

10 Concentric Zone Model: Considerations
Considered a product of its time, circa 1950 Developed for American cities and not easily applied elsewhere Developed when people used public transit and can’t be applied to the highway cities of today

Just like the model Include examples (in each sector) from your memory. Be able to discuss the positives and negatives of this model

12 Three Classical Models of Urban Structure

13 1871

14 1892

15 1996


17 Sector Model Homer Hoyt, 1939 City of Chicago
Transport had a direct impact on land uses Cities grow along an axis, thus the sector model 6

18 Sector Model 6 Zone 1: CBD Land is expensive
Little space, competition is high, congestion is high 6 Zone 2: Zone of Transition Old industries located here State of constant change due to growth of Zone 1

19 Sector Model 6 Zone 3: Zone of Transition A.k.a old inner city areas
Low class residential housing 6 Zone 4: Council Estates Semi-detached housing Garden areas Medium-class residential

20 Sector Model Zone 5: Commuter Zone
Private, high class, top quality housing Much commuting into CBD Zone 6: Countryside areas Pleasant, rural surroundings Satellite villages and towns



23 Multi-Nuclei Theory Harris and Ullman
Separate nuclei or CBD’s in the urban pattern, not just one Centrifugal forces determine land use, ie residential repels industrial High rent vs low rent

24 Multi-Nuclei Theory Zone 1 CBD Zone 2 Zone of Transition Zone 3
Residential Low Class Zone 4 Residential Middle Class

25 Multi-Nuclei Theory Zone 5 Residential Upper Class Zone 6
Industry and Heavy Manufacturing Zone 7 Mini CBD Zone 8 Residential Suburb

26 Multi-Nuclei Theory Zone 9 Industrial Suburb

27 Urban Realms Model Each realm is a separate economic, social and political entity that is linked together to form a larger metro framework.

28 Modeling the Cities of the Global Periphery and Semiperiphery
Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model) African City (de Blij model) Southeast Asian City (McGee model)

29 Latin American City (Griffin-Ford model)

30 The African City (de Blij model)

31 Southeast Asian City (McGee model)

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