Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 5: Urban Land Use Models 1.What’s a Model? 2.Concentric Zone Model (Burgess) 3.Sector Model.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 5: Urban Land Use Models 1.What’s a Model? 2.Concentric Zone Model (Burgess) 3.Sector Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 5: Urban Land Use Models 1.What’s a Model? 2.Concentric Zone Model (Burgess) 3.Sector Model (Hoyt) 4.Multiple Nuclei Model (Harris & Ullman) 5.Urban Realms Model (Vance; aka “Pepperoni Pizza” Model) READING Required: Textbook, Ch. 8, (Traditional Models) Optional: Phillips & LeGates; Wheeler & Muller “It is a very fundamental principle, indeed, “It is a very fundamental principle, indeed, that knowledge is always gained by the orderly loss of information.” --Kenneth E. Boulding

2 1. What’s a model? Best synonym: a model = “a representation” Best synonym: a model = “a representation” A textbook definition: A textbook definition: An idealized representation of a part of reality which is constructed so as to demonstrate certain of its properties. --Yeates and Garner, The North American City

3 2. The Concentric-Zone Model Proposed by Burgess – A sociologist at the University of Chicago: 1925 book titled The City Proposed by Burgess – A sociologist at the University of Chicago: 1925 book titled The City Based on a study of land use patterns and social group dynamics in Chicago Based on a study of land use patterns and social group dynamics in Chicago Geographically the city was visualized like 5 or 6 major rings, such as from a cross-section of a tree Geographically the city was visualized like 5 or 6 major rings, such as from a cross-section of a tree

4 New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: New field in 1920s called human ecology based on ideas from biology such as: –Plant invasion –Species succession –Climax vegetation Urban ecology: groups of people occupy over time different areas of the city like different plant species Urban ecology: groups of people occupy over time different areas of the city like different plant species Burgess said the zones were rings… Burgess said the zones were rings…

5 2. The Concentric-Zone Model Model based on Chicago, so rings are only semi- circular due to Lake Michigan Model based on Chicago, so rings are only semi- circular due to Lake Michigan 1A CBD Proper 1B Fringe of CBD 2 Zone in Transition or ‘Gray Zone’ or ‘Gray Zone’ 3 Lower Income Housing 4 Higher Income Housing 5 Commuters’ Zone 1A 1B CBD = “Central Business District” In Chicago: “The Loop” Dept stores, office bldgs, banks, hotels, theaters >> things that service entire metro area Wholesaling, warehousing, truck & railroad depots >>things that service CBD uses; cannot afford extreme land values of CBD proper; may need more land These uses haved moved out to circumpherential highways Mixed residential and commercial uses Older residential area; former homes of well-to-do have trickled down to low- income; Businesses and light manufacturing, print shops Zone of slums, rooming houses, newly arrived immigrants Burgess called this ring: “Zone of Independent Workers’ Housing” Industrial workers. May have moved out from Zone 2 boarding houses as begin to assimilate, prosper, start families Single-family residences; streetcar suburbs Suburban areas containing satellite cities Important theoretical under-pinnings for this model provided by economists such as Alonso and Muth (who borrowed von Thunen’s ideas!)

6 3. The Sector Model This model proposed by a land economist working for U.S. federal government named Homer Hoyt This model proposed by a land economist working for U.S. federal government named Homer Hoyt Based his model on a huge study of housing values in more than 100 cities Based his model on a huge study of housing values in more than 100 cities He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster He posited a CBD around which other land uses cluster

7 3. The Sector Model But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric zone model, but direction away from CBD But important factor is not distance from CBD as in the concentric zone model, but direction away from CBD Wedge-shaped land use zones: like pieces of pie Wedge-shaped land use zones: like pieces of pie Does the “side” of town matter in Tucson? Does the “side” of town matter in Tucson?

8 3. The Sector Model (continued) 1.CBD 2.Wholesale & Light Manufacturing 3.Low-income Residential 4.Middle-Income Residential 5.High-Income Residential SOURCE: en/conc6en/sectornuclei.html en/conc6en/sectornuclei.html Adapted from: H. Carter (1995) Urban Geography 4 th Edition. London: Arnold, p Which side is high-class residential? Why? Which side is high-class residential? Why? Why is lower-class residential where it is shown? Why is lower-class residential where it is shown? Discuss: Concept of “environmental justice” Discuss: Concept of “environmental justice”

9 3. The Sector Model (continued) As growth occurs, similar activities stay in the same area and extend outwards As growth occurs, similar activities stay in the same area and extend outwards Good for accommodating growth Good for accommodating growth –Development axes; growth momentum –Concentric zone model requires redevelopment to change the amount of residential land use of different types Why do land use areas take wedge shapes? Why do land use areas take wedge shapes? –Follow older radial transport lines –High-class residential on higher ground or along an environmental amenity (e.g., wooded ravine) –Lower-class residential along “the tracks” coming in and out of town

10 3. The Sector Model (continued) This theory is particularly good for residential land use This theory is particularly good for residential land use Both the concentric zone and sector models are monocentric representations of urban areas Both the concentric zone and sector models are monocentric representations of urban areas How realistic are they for an auto-age metropolis like Tucson? How realistic are they for an auto-age metropolis like Tucson?

11 4. Multiple Nuclei Model Developed by two geographers: Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman in 1945 based on Seattle, Washington Developed by two geographers: Chauncey Harris & Edward Ullman in 1945 based on Seattle, Washington Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a single core but have several nodes Basic concept: cities don’t grow up around a single core but have several nodes CBD need not be at the center (!) CBD need not be at the center (!) Proximity to other locations (universities, airport, malls) can generate clusters of high- intensity land use Proximity to other locations (universities, airport, malls) can generate clusters of high- intensity land use

12 4. Multiple Nuclei Model 1. CBD 2. Wholesale & Light Manufacturing 3. Low-income Residential 4. Middle-Income Residential 5. High-Income Residential 6. Heavy Manufacturing 7. Outlying Business District (Mall) 8. Residential Suburb 9. Industrial Suburb SOURCE: n/sectornuclei.html n/sectornuclei.html

13 5. Urban Realms Model Are any of these models just like Tucson? Are any of these models just like Tucson? Not the point of a model to exactly replicate all aspects of reality Not the point of a model to exactly replicate all aspects of reality How can a model be extended to become more realistic? How can a model be extended to become more realistic? Example: Starfish-like growth during streetcar suburbs era with Concentric Zone Model (sketch) Example: Starfish-like growth during streetcar suburbs era with Concentric Zone Model (sketch)

14 5. Urban Realms Model Today: A new urban reality that is not totally captured by any of the three standard pre-1950s models Today: A new urban reality that is not totally captured by any of the three standard pre-1950s models Geographer James Vance in 1964 proposed “Urban Realms” (aka “Pepperoni Pizza”) model to describe Metropolitan L.A. Geographer James Vance in 1964 proposed “Urban Realms” (aka “Pepperoni Pizza”) model to describe Metropolitan L.A. La-La Land is a vast poly-nucleated region linked by freeways and long-distance commuters La-La Land is a vast poly-nucleated region linked by freeways and long-distance commuters

15 POP QUIZ Name ___________ Name that model: Proposed by a land economist, Homer Hoyt, it posits that different categories of housing occupy wedge-shaped areas radiating out from the CBD… Sector Model


Download ppt "Geography/Planning 379 “Urban Growth & Development” Lecture 5: Urban Land Use Models 1.What’s a Model? 2.Concentric Zone Model (Burgess) 3.Sector Model."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google