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© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. W4/25/12 Distribution of People in Cities (Ch. 13.2 – pp. 410-418)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Models of Urban Structure –Overview –used to explain where people live in cities –3 models, all developed in Chicago »few physical limitations in Midwest –A. Concentric zone model E. W. Burgess – Chicago – 1923 - sociologist Cities grow out from central core –Similar to tree rings –Rings may differ in size 5 rings –1. CBD – non-residential, businesses –2. Transition zone – industry, poorer (immigrants) –3. working-class homes – more modest, simpler homes –4. better housing – middle-class –5. commuters – on outskirts of city
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Concentric Zone Model Figure 13-4
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Models of Urban Structure –B. Sector model Homer Hoyt – Chicago – 1939 – economist –Cities develop in sectors rather than rings –Some areas more attractive for a specific need/activity –Cities expand in wedges, rather than circles »Refinement of concentric zone model –pattern of wealthy districts moving further and further away from CBD over time Both Hoyt & Burgess used Chicago as model
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Sector Model Figure 13-5
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Models of Urban Structure –C. Multiple nuclei model C.D. Harris & E.L. Ullman – geographers – 1945 –Cities are complex & can include more than one center –Multiple nodes (ex: ports, universities, transportation, etc.) –Areas are attractive or unattractive to specific nodes –Some nodes avoid each other »Also used Chicago as model
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Multiple Nuclei Model Figure 13-6
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. I. Models of Urban Structure D. Geographic Application of the Models Models can be used to show where different social groups live in the cities Data used to support and/or counter models –Census tracts – U.S. Bureau of Census divides country into clusters of ~5,000 ppl. »Tries to maintain neighborhood boundaries »May include multiple characteristics of area –Social area analysis »Studies comparing population distributions based on specific characteristics E. Criticism of the Models –Models may be too simple & outdated –Make more sense when parts of each are used to explain contemporary circumstances
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. II. Applying the Models Outside North America –A. European cities Opposite pattern from U.S. –Wealthy live in CBDs –Poor live in suburbs High-density suburbs to avoid suburban sprawl –Leads to greater pockets of poverty –B. Less developed countries Regional distinctions – Americas, Asia, Africa –Few cities prior to European colonialism in Africa & America – Asia had major cities 1. Pre-colonial Cities –Often focused on religious structure –Lone American exception was Mexico - Tenochtitlan
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Income Distribution in the Paris Region Figure 13-10
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. II. Applying the Models Outside North America –B. Less Developed Countries (cont.) 2. Colonial Cities –Similar to Eur. cities due to colonial influence »Urban – wealthier »Suburban – poorer –Often built new city next to, or over, “old city” »Fez, New Delhi – next to »Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City) – over 3. Cities since Independence –Continue Eur. pattern »Mexico City, Rio de Janeiro 4. Squatter Settlements –Massive housing shortage –Too many people w/out enough money to afford housing –Incredible poverty »Slums in MumbaiSlums in Mumbai
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Model of a Latin American City Figure 13-14
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