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Classic Urban Models.

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Presentation on theme: "Classic Urban Models."— Presentation transcript:

1 Classic Urban Models

2 Three models of urban structure:
Concentric Zone model Sector Model Multiple Nuclei Model Use of the models outside North America: European cities LDC’s

3 A. Concentric Zone Model
1. Ernest Burgess (1920s): depicts use of urban land as a set of concentric rings - each ring devoted to a different land use (studied Chicago)

4 2. Concentric Zones: Zone I: Central Business District (CBD) that is the most accessible zone where most of the tertiary employment is located Zone II: Zone of Transition where many industrial activities locate (nearby labor, markets, transport terminals like ports & rail) Zone III: Zone of Independent Workers is used by some industrial activities in inner cities and ethnic enclaves - contains the poorest segment of the urban population Zone IV: Zone of Better Residences is dominated by the working class (often second generation immigrants) Zone V: Commuter Zone represents higher quality suburban housing linked with higher commuting costs


6 Cleveland, Ohio The density gradient in Cleveland
shows the expansion of dense population outward from the city center over time.

7 Social Area Analysis: Percent Renters IN Indianapolis, IN
The distribution of renters in Indianapolis illustrates the concentric zone model

8 3. Concentric Zone Weaknesses:
too simple developed for American cities cars uncommon at time (horses & streetcars) assumes reliance on public transit lots of spatial differences in terms of ethnic & social patterns


10 B. Sector Model study done in 1939 by Homer Hoyt in Chicago
land use NOT random: defined by functional sectoral wedges - transportation “corridors” impact land uses - rail lines, major roads, public transport create “sectors”

In his model, Hoyt is taking into account differences in accessibility and, therefore, in land values along transportation routes

12 Indianapolis: Household Income
The distribution of high income households in Indianapolis is an example of a sector model.

13 C. Multiple Nuclei Model
the Harris & Ullman Multi-Nuclei Model (1945) looks at a city as being multi-nucleated with a downtown center & satellite centers on the periphery presence of many competing decentralized centers reflects influence of automobile Five areas: 1. CBD 2. Wholesaling & light manufacturing area 3. Heavy industrial area 4. Residential areas 5. Outlying suburban areas


15 Indianapolis: Ethnic Patterns
The distribution of minorities in Indianapolis is an example of a multiple nuclei model.



18 St. Louis Metropolitan Area?
The metropolitan area of St. Louis is spread over several counties and two states.

19 Typical Present-day U.S. City

20 The “Galactic” City


22 D. Social Differences in Cities
Urban life different due to: large size high population density socially diversity

23 Social Geography of U.S. & Canadian Cities

24 E. Political Definitions of Cities
Urban settlements defined in three ways: by a legal boundary (a self-governing political unit) a continuously built-up area a functional area

25 Megalopolis The Boston–Washington corridor contains about 1/4th of U.S. population.

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