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Cells. All living things are made up of one or more cells Cells are the basic units of life Unicellular organism Multicellular organism.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells. All living things are made up of one or more cells Cells are the basic units of life Unicellular organism Multicellular organism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells

2 All living things are made up of one or more cells Cells are the basic units of life Unicellular organism Multicellular organism

3 Molecules DNA molecules Atoms Organ systems Cells nerve cell Tissues leaf tissues cardiac tissue Organisms tree human Organs leaf stem brain heart Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

4 Most cells are between 10 and 100 microns Cells = 10,000 to 100,000 times smaller than us Atoms = 100,000 to 1,000,000 times smaller than cells

5 Every cell has : Cell membrane layer that surrounds the cell Cytoplasm Cytoplasm semi-fluid substance inside the cell Organelles small structures or compartments inside the cell

6 Selectively – permeable: only some substances can pass through Cell Membrane Made of a bi-layer of phospholipids embedded with proteins Controls what enters and leaves the cell Protects the cell from the environment Maintains an internal environment different than that outside the cell. Functions: Characteristics:

7 Some proteins act as channels through which certain molecules can pass Phospholipid bilayer

8 Fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane: The phospholipids can flow around each other in most parts of the cell membrane

9 Organelles are divided into two groups: Membranous –Nucleus –Endoplasmic reticulum –Golgi apparatus –Vesicles, vacuoles –Lysosomes –Mitochondria –Chloroplasts Non Membranous: –Ribosomes –Cytoskeleton (microtubules, filaments) –Centrioles –Cilia and flagella

10 The nucleus Membranous Organelles Functions: Controls the activities of the cell Stores hereditary material (DNA) that is passed on to the next generation

11 Parts of the Nucleus: Nuclear envelope: double membrane separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm has nuclear pores (openings) that control what leaves and enters the nucleus

12 Chromatin –long, threadlike form of chromosomes –Made of DNA and proteins wound together Carries genetic information Contains the instructions for the cell activities Nucleolus: dark region of chromatin Site of ribosome production Parts of the Nucleus:

13 Electron micrograph of a cell

14 Sets of membranes connected to nuclear and plasma membranes Functions: Site of synthesis of organic molecules (esp. proteins) Transport of materials around the cytoplasm Endoplasmic reticulum

15 Two types: Rough ER – ribosomes attached Smooth ER – no ribosomes attached Endoplasmic reticulum Ribosomes: Structures made of RNA found on rough ER and in cytoplasm Function: Site of protein synthesis

16 Stack of membranes that package newly-synthesized molecules [from ER] and distributes to other parts of cell or out of cell Golgi apparatus:

17 Vesicle: membrane bound sac used for transportation of molecules into and out of a cell

18 Vacuole: Membrane bound sac used for storage -enzymes -water -starch -wastes -lipids

19 Specialized vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes to digest large molecules Usually double walled to protect cell Important part of programmed cell death called apoptosis Lysosomes:

20 Intracellular conversion: Information and products flow from : Nuclear membrane  ER  Golgi  Vesicle  Plasma membrane

21 Getting molecules out: Vesicles carrying products of the cell fuse with the cell membrane

22 Mitochondria: Function: site of aerobic respiration (breaking down of food molecules to release energy) Also called the “powerhouse” of the cell

23 Structure of a Mitochondria:

24 Chloroplasts: Function: site of photosynthesis (process in which light energy is used to make food) Found in plants, algae and some protists

25 Structure of Chloroplast:

26 Provides internal structural support and allows the cell and organelles to move Includes protein filaments (rods) and microtubules (small hollow tubes) Cytoskeleton Non-membranous

27 Two structures found close to the nucleus at right angles to each other Organizes the chromosomes during cell division Not found in plant cells Centrioles: Non-membranous

28 Used to move fluids across the cell surface or move the entire cell Cilia and flagella: Cilia are short and cover more of the cell membrane Flagella are long whip-like structures

29 Plasma membrane or cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles Membranous Organelles: Non-membranous Organelles: What are the three parts all cells have? What are the two groups of organelles?

30 Name the Non-membranous Organelles: Name the Membranous Organelles: Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vesicles, vacuoles Lysosomes Mitochondria Chloroplasts Ribosomes Cytoskeleton (microtubules, filaments) Centrioles Cilia and flagella

31 Cellular Organelles vacuole centrioles mitochondrium Rough ER Smooth ER lysosomes Golgi Nucleus

32 There are three large groups of living organisms called Domains Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Animals Plants Protists Fungi Domains Kingdoms

33 There are three domains of living organisms Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Animals Plants Protists Fungi Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells They are differentiated by their cell type, organelles and biochemistry

34 Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells Prokaryotic (bacteria) No nucleus- DNA in cytoplasm (nucleoid) Few organelles (cell membrane, ribosomes, flagella Small [same size of organelles; 1 – 10 μm ] Unicellular Cell wall Eukaryotic Nucleus – DNA contained within a membrane Membranous and non membranous Organelles Large (10 – 100 μm) Can be unicellular or multicellular Some with cell walls, some without

35 Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell

36 The four kingdoms of Eukarya (Cells contain nucleus) ProtistaFungi Plantae Animalia

37 Kingdom Plantae Multicellular Autotrophic (chloroplasts) Cell wall (cellulose) Domain Eukaryota

38 Kingdom Animalia Multicellular (cells are held together by collagen) Heterotrophic No cell wall Domain Eukaryota

39 Kingdom Fungi Multicellular Multinucleated (several nuclei) Cell wall (Chitin) Heterotrophic Spores used for reproduction

40 Kingdom Protista Artificial Group Unicellular, Colonial or multicellular Auto/Heterotrophic Variable cell walls (silica, cellulose, chitin, no cell wall) Domain Eukaryota


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