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Cell Structure. Cells En küçük yaşam birimi Çoğu mikroskobik.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure. Cells En küçük yaşam birimi Çoğu mikroskobik."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure

2 Cells En küçük yaşam birimi Çoğu mikroskobik

3 Cell Keşif Robert Hooke (mid-1600s) –Mantar –Küçük boş odacık

4 Cell theory Tüm organizma bir veya daha fazla hücreden oluşur Bir hücre bir önceki hücreden bölünme ile olur Organizmadaki en küçük canlı yapı

5 Cell Size

6 Characteristics of All Cells membran Protoplasma Organel DNA

7 Cell Types Prokaryotic Eukaryotic

8 Prokaryotic Cells First cell type on earth Cell type of Bacteria and Archaea

9 Prokaryotic Cells nukleus ?? Nucleoid = region of DNA concentration Organelles not bound by membranes

10 Eukaryotic Cells Nucleus bound by membrane Include fungi, protists, plant, and animal cells Possess many organelles Protozoan

11 Representative Animal Cell

12 Representative Plant Cell

13 Plasma Membrane Contains cell contents Double layer of phospholipids & proteins

14 Phospholipids Polar –Hydrophylic head –Hydrophobic tail Interacts with water

15 Cell Walls Found in plants, fungi, & many protists Surrounds plasma membrane

16 Cell Wall Differences Plants – mostly cellulose Fungi – contain chitin

17 Cytoplasm Viscous fluid containing organelles components of cytoplasm –Interconnected filaments & fibers –Fluid = cytosol –Organelles (not nucleus) – storage substances

18 Cytoskeleton Filaments & fibers Made of 3 fiber types –Microfilaments –Microtubules –Intermediate filaments 3 functions: – mechanical support – anchor organelles – help move substances

19 A = actin, IF = intermediate filament, MT = microtubule

20 Cilia & Flagella Provide motility Cilia –Short –Used to move substances outside human cells Flagella –Whip-like extensions –Found on sperm cells Basal bodies like centrioles

21 Cilia & Flagella Structure Bundles of microtubules With plasma membrane

22 Centrioles Pairs of microtubular structures Play a role in cell division

23 Nucleus Control center of cell Double membrane Contains –Chromosomes –Nucleolus

24 Nuclear Envelope Separates nucleus from rest of cell Double membrane Has pores

25 DNA Hereditary material Chromosomes –DNA –Protiens –Form for cell division Chromatin

26 Nucleolus Most cells have 2 or more Directs synthesis of RNA Forms ribosomes

27 Endoplasmic Reticulum Helps move substances within cells Network of interconnected membranes Two types –Rough endoplasmic reticulum –Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

28 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes attached to surface –Manufacture protiens –Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER May modify proteins from ribosomes

29 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum No attached ribosomes Has enzymes that help build molecules –Carbohydrates –Lipids

30 Golgi Apparatus Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall Packaging & shipping station of cell

31 Golgi Apparatus Function 1. Molecules come in vesicles 2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane 3. Molecules may be modified by Golgi

32 Golgi Apparatus Function (Continued) 4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle 5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus 6. Vesicles may combine with plasma membrane to secrete contents


34 Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Functions –Aid in cell renewal –Break down old cell parts –Digests invaders

35 Vacuoles Membrane bound storage sacs More common in plants than animals Contents –Water –Food –wastes

36 Bacteria-Like Organelles Release & store energy Types –Mitochondria (release energy) –Chloroplasts (store energy)


38 Evidence for the endosymbiont theory is that mitochondria and chloroplasts: - Are appropriate size to be descendants of eubacteria. - Have inner membranes similar to those on prokaryotic plasma membranes. - Replicate by splitting, as in prokaryotes. - DNA is circular and different from the DNA of the cell's nucleus. - Contain their own components for DNA transcription and translation into proteins. - Have ribosomes similar to prokaryotic ribosomes. - Molecular systematics lend evidence to support this theory.

39 Mitochondria Have their own DNA Bound by double membrane

40 Mitochondria Break down fuel molecules ( cellular respiration) –Glucose –Fatty acids Release energy –ATP

41 Chloroplasts Derived form photosynthetic bacteria Solar energy capturing organelle

42 Photosynthesis Takes place in the chloroplast Makes cellular food – glucose

43 Review of Eukaryotic Cells



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