2Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic nucleusmembrane enclosed organellechromosomes in pairsstreaming in the cytoplasmcell division by mitosiscomplex flagellalarger ribosomescomplex cytoskeletoncellulose in cell wallsDNA bound to histone proteinsno nucleusno membrane enclosed organellessingle chromosomeno streaming in the cytoplasmcell division without mitosissimple flagellasmaller ribosomessimple cytoskeletonno cellulose in cell wallsno histone proteins
3Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Examples:BacteriaExamples:Plant cellsAnimal cellsFungiProtists
4Cell CharacteristicsEukaryotic cells have a complex, highly organized internal structure that enables them to perform specific cellular processes.Several organelles work together to make and process proteins.Other organelles, such as the mitochondria and chloroplasts, supply energy for cells.
5Cell membraneAlso known as the plasma membraneMade of a double layer of phospholipids with proteinsembedded to assist with the transportation of moleculesForms a boundary between the cytoplasm and the outsideof a cell and controls what enters and exits the cell
6CytoskeletonA network of fibers that provides internal structure and support for a cell.There are three main types of fibers which form the cytoskeleton.These fibers are made of proteins. The three types of fibers are:Microtubules – long hollow tubes that give a cell its shapeIntermediate filaments – small fibers that give a cell its strengthMicrofilaments – tiny threads that allow a cell to move and divide
7CytoplasmJelly-like substance inside a cell that contains the cellorganelles. It is made mostly of water.The fluid filled part of the cytoplasm is known as thecytosol.
8Stores and protects the genetic information, or DNA, of a cell. NucleusStores and protects the genetic information, or DNA, of a cell.DNA is located in chromosomes inside the nucleus.Is surrounded by a nuclear envelope, or nuclear membrane, thatcontains pores that allow molecules to travel in and out of thenucleus.Contains the nucleolus which produces ribosomes for the cell.
9Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is a network of thin foldedmembranes that assists in the processing and transportation ofproteins and lipids.Rough ER – Transports proteins (roughness is the attached ribosomes)Smooth ER – Processes and transports lipids
10RibosomesThe site of protein synthesis (production).Ribosomes are made in the nucleolus and can be found floatingfreely in the cytoplasm or attached to the Rough ER.Ribosomes are responsible for linking amino acids together toform proteins.
11Golgi Apparatus (Golgi Bodies, Golgi Complex) Closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spacesThe spaces within the Golgi apparatus are whereproteins are processed, sorted and packaged.
12VesiclesSmall membrane-bound sacs that isolate and transportspecific molecules
13MitochondriaBean-shaped organelle made of an inner membrane,comprised of many folds, and an outer membraneSupplies energy for the cell in the form of ATPMitochondria have their own ribosomes and DNA, whichmake them a unique organelle
14VacuoleFluid-filled sac used for the storage of water, food molecules andenzymes.Animal cells contain multiple small vacuoles and plant cells containone large central vacuole which helps support the cell.Vacuoles
15LysosomesOrganelle that contains enzymes that break down damaged or worn-out cell parts, breakdown large molecules, and protect cells from invading bacteria and viruses.They are found in large numbers in animal cells.
16CentriolesCylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubulesarranged in a circle. The centrioles are perpendicularto each other and divide DNA during cell division.Centrioles also organize microtubules to form cilia andflagella (structures used for movement).
17Chloroplasts Organelles that contain an outer membrane, as well as an inner membrane that contains stacks of disc-shaped sacscalled thylakoids. The thylakoids contain chlorophyll andperform photosynthesis.
18Cell WallA rigid layer found in plant cells that provides protection, supportand shape to the cell.In plants and algae the cell wall is made of cellulose (polysaccharide).In fungi the cell wall is made of chitin.
19Comparison: Plant cells Animal cells Large, central vacuoleChloroplastsRigid cell wall outsideof cell membraneNo large, central vacuoleNo chloroplastsNo rigid cell wall