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Bacteria - Eubacteria Domain Prokarya. Shifting Kingdoms 23568 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria - Eubacteria Domain Prokarya. Shifting Kingdoms 23568 Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria - Eubacteria Domain Prokarya

2 Shifting Kingdoms Bacteria Archaebacteria Archezoans Euglenoids Chrysophytes Green Algae Brown Algae Red algae Slime Molds True Fungi Bryophytes Tracheophytes Protozoans Myxozoans Multicellular Animals Lumpers SplittersPlantaeMoneraBacteria-Eubacteria

3 How Many Kingdoms? Multicellular Animals MyxozoansProtozoans Tracheophytes Bryophytes True Fungi Slime Molds Red algae Brown Algae Green Algae Chrysophytes EuglenoidsArchezoans Archaebacteria Bacteria Original Cell Extant Extinct Long Time with Prokaryotes only

4 Bacteria - Eubacteria Ancient fossils 3.5 billion years b.p. Archetype for prokaryotic organisms –Phototrophs –Chemoautotrophs –Heterotrophs –Saprobes –Parasites (bacteria benefit, host harmed) –Commensals (bacteria benefit, host unharmed) –Mutualists (bacteria and host both benefit) Unicellular, colonial, filamentous Bacillus, coccus, spirillum

5 Cell Sizes Mycoplasma µm E. coli 1x2 µm Cyanobacteria 10 µm diam Plant Cell 30x75 µm Obviously eukaryotic Nucleus present Mitochondrion Bacterium Chloroplast Cyanobacterium

6 Cell Shapes Coccus - cocci Bacillus - bacillus Spirillum - spirilli Vibrio - vibrios

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8 Leptospira

9 Vibrio cholerae Helicobacter pylori

10 Cell Associations Coccus Diplococcus Streptococcus - filamentous Staphylococcus - colonial ? Streptobacillus

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12 Cell Structure: Boundary Gram PositiveGram Negative Mycoplasma cell membrane bilayer lipopolysaccharide transport proteins cell wall-murein peptidoglycan muramic acid - peptide additional membrane bilayer lipopolysaccharide cytosol regulates input/output prevents bursting turgor pressure penicillin sensitive releases dye

13 Capsule or Sheath Cell Structure: Boundary Defenses cell adhesion chemical resistance - defense desiccation resistance mucoid polysaccharides spore coat + DNA + other materials exterior may be lost frozen for long periods boiled for long periods desiccated for long periods then germinates to new cell Endospore Bacillus anthracis

14 ? ?

15 Cell Structure: Movement anchorage rotation basal rings and rod stiff helical flagellum is rotated by motor apparatus in the membrane by H+ ATPase at rates of rps (>12,000 rpm!) hook directional rotation? flagellin protein Exceptions: myxomycetes, some cyanobacteria use slime, but how? spirochetes have flexible internal microtubules (endosymbiotic source of flagella in eukaryotes?) ((gut parasite in termites have spirochete symbiosis)) Taxis: movement toward stimulus phototaxis: movement toward light chemotaxis: movement to chemicals

16 Lophotrichous: flagella found at one end of the cell

17 Amphitrichous: flagella at both ends (but not many on sides) Peritrichous: flagella all around cell

18 Prokaryotic Growth Cells are generally very small Cells may double in size but only before binary fission Growth mostly in terms of cell number or colony size, etc. Doubling time in cell numbers may be 20 minutes in ideal conditions Could quickly take over the earth if conditions could remain ideal Very competitive in ideal environments Ultimate survivors billion years!

19 Cell Structure: Nucleoid transcription by RNA polymerase one circular DNA molecule no histone protein association attached to cell membrane separation of chromosomes replication by DNA polymerase Nucleoid - genome translation of mRNA into protein rRNA + protein + ribozymes 70S Ribosome cytokinesis by furrowing Process called binary fission NOT mitosis! Genome and copy are identical Genome is haploid There is no synapsis There is no recombination

20 nucleoids initial furrowing furrowing complete


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