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Grammar and Usage Unit 1 direct speech & reported speech
Grammar and Usage
Lead-in T: What did you eat this morning? Tom: I ate … T What did Tom say, Jack? Jack: He said he ate … direct speech reported speech We use direct speech to report what exactly has been said. If we write the speech down, the words will usually appear in quotation marks.
1. Which one is direct speech and which one is reported speech? He said, I will go to school tomorrow. She told us something secret. 2. Change the direct speech into reported speech. She said, This film is quite interesting. Finish the project tomorrow. he said to me. (direct speech) (reported speech) She said that that film was quite interesting. He asked me to finish the project the next day. (Change what has been said to an object clause or an infinitive phrase.)
What should we pay attention to? personal pronouns and tenses e.g. Miss Yang said, I will buy a new dress. Miss Yang said that she would buy a new dress. Ex. Simon said, I wrote a letter. How to change the tense? Have a look. Simon said that he had written a letter.
Direct Speech Reported speech Direct SpeechReported speech Simple present Simple pastSimple futureFuture in the past Present continuous Past continuous Past perfect Simple pastPast perfectPresent perfect continuous Past perfect continuous Present perfect Past perfect
Practice 1: Change the following sentences into reported speech. 1. I havent brought my dictionary, the student said. 2. Tom said to them, I will get excited. 3. My father said to me, I am reading the book. The student said that he hadnt brought his dictionary. Tom told them that he would get excited. My father told me that he was reading the book.
What should we pay attention to? 1 personal pronouns and tense 2 adverbials of time and place e.g. He said, I lost a key here yesterday. He said that he had lost a key there the day before/the previous day. Ex. I read the book here a week ago. Jane said to him. Jane told him that she had read the book there a week before. learn more about it
Direct speechReported speech todaythe day/yesterday/on Monday, etc. tomorrowthe next day/the following day/on Friday, etc yesterdaythe day before/the previous day/on Tuesday, etc next monththe month after/the following month/in July, etc last yearthe year before/the previous year, etc. a week agoa week before/a week earlier, etc.
Practice 2: Change the following sentences into reported speech. 1. I will come and see you again this evening, Tom. he said. 2. I will come here again today, she said. 3. The doctor said to the patient, You will have to wait till 3 pm tomorrow. He told Tom that he would go and see him again that evening. She said that shed go there again that day. The doctor told the patient that he would have to wait till 3 p.m. the next day.
What should we pay attention to? 1. personal pronouns and tense 2. adverbials of time and place 3. other cases Directed speechReported speech thisthat thesethose comego
Notice: 1. in 1992 last week My father said to me, I read the book in 1986 My father told me he read the book in 1986.
2. The geography teacher said to us, The earth goes around the sun. The geography teacher told us that the earth goes around the sun.
Complete the memo at Page 9 Possible answers: (1) was (2) wouldnt (3) had read (4)that (5)would (6) had bought (7) that (8) would (9) those (10) Her
How to use reported speech to report: statements questions imperative sentences
Statements: *We use noun clauses introduced by that to report statements. She said, Ads are an important part of our lives. She said that ads were an important part of our lives. There are two main types of ads, the writer said to us. The writer told us that there were two main types of ads. *More reporting words: PSAs are often placed for free, the writer said. The writer explained that PSAs were often placed for free. advise explain insist promise announce suggest warn Can you give more examples?
Practice: Change the following sentences into direct speech. 1. Tom suggested that we should translate the book into English. 2. The student explained that he really didnt know he had to finish the work a week before. 3. The teacher promised that he would give his students a few holidays at the end of that month. Tom said, Youd better translate the book into English. The student said, I really dont know I must finish the work a week ago. The teacher said, I will give my students a few holidays at the end of this month.
Questions: *We use noun clauses introduced by whether/if to report yes/no-questions. Are all ads playing tricks on us? I asked her. I asked her whether/if all ads were playing tricks on us. *We use noun clauses introduced by wh-words to report wh-questions. I asked her, How can that be true? I asked her how that could be true. Where did you find the ads for jobs abroad? Bill asked. Bill asked where I had found the ads for jobs abroad.
Practice: Change the following sentences into reported speech. 1. My mother asked me, Do you want to go to the Great Wall with me? 2. The teacher asked the boy, How many pages have you read today? 3. I asked Li Ying, Where and when were you born? My mother asked me whether I wanted to go to the Great Wall with her. The teacher asked the boy how many pages he had read that day. I asked Li Ying where and when he was born.
Imperative sentences: *To report imperative sentences, we use the structure: reporting verb+object+(not)+to-infinitive. Dont worry, Mickey, Jen said. Jen asked Mickey not to worry. *other verbs can be used in this structure Dont believe every ad you read, Lily said to me. Lily advised me not to believe every ad I read. reporting verb object(not)to-infinitive advise encourage invite recommend warn Lets do some Ex for consolidation! You can do it well!
Practice: Change the following sentences into direct speech. 1. My mother recommended me not to take those weight-loss pills. 2. My brother ordered me to go there at once. 3. My father warned us not to throw the waste paper everywhere. My mother said to me, Dont take these weight-loss pills. My brother said, Come here at once. My father said to us, Dont throw the waste paper everywhere.
Consolidation Finish Ex. A and B at P.11
Homework 1. Finish Ex on Page Make good preparations for Task part.