Presentation on theme: "I speak English. REPORTED SPEECH. direct speech“I speak English.” reported speech (no backshift) He says that he speaks English. reported speech (backshift)"— Presentation transcript:
I speak English. REPORTED SPEECH
direct speech“I speak English.” reported speech (no backshift) He says that he speaks English. reported speech (backshift) He said that he spoke English.
1)If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech. Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office. 2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office. Statements
1.Pronouns 2.present tense verbs (3rd person singular) 3.place and time expressions 4.tenses (backshift) When transforming statements, check whether you have to change:
fromto Simple PresentSimple Past Past Perfect Present Perfect Past Perfect willwould The verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change. Example: He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right. Backshift of tenses
this (evening)that (evening) today/this daythat day these (days)those (days) nowthen (a week) ago(a week) before last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend herethere next (week)the following (week) tomorrowthe next/following day Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday." Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before. Shifting of expressions of time
If you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements: changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing of expressions of time. Reported questions In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement. That's why the word order is: subject - verb Question without question words (yes/no questions): Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if) I played football. Question with question words: Peter: "When do you play football?" - Peter asked me when I played football.
Reported commands Affirmative commands Father: "Do your homework.” Father told me to do my homework. The form is mostly: form of to tell +person + to + infinitive. Negative commands Teacher. "Don't talk to your neighbour." The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.
The basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ‚to‘ + infinite verb. Example: “Say hello to your mum.“ She asked me to say hello to my mum. Requests The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should. Example: “Let’s go to the cinema.“ He suggested going to the cinema. He suggested that we should go.to the cinema. Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urge. Example: “You must read that book.“ He advised / urged me to read that book.