2 “I speak English.”direct speechHe says that he speaks English.reported speech (no backshift)reported speech (backshift)He said that he spoke English.
3 StatementsIf the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office.
4 When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: Pronounspresent tense verbs (3rd person singular)place and time expressionstenses (backshift)
5 Backshift of tensesfromtoSimple PresentSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectwillwouldThe verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change.Example:He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right.
6 Shifting of expressions of time Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday." Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.this (evening)that (evening)today/this daythat daythese (days)those (days)nowthen(a week) ago(a week) beforelast weekendthe weekend before / the previous weekendheretherenext (week)the following (week)tomorrowthe next/following day
7 Reported questionsIf you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements:changing of the person,backshift of tenses,changing of expressions of time.In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement. That's why the word order is: subject - verbQuestion without question words (yes/no questions):Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if) I played football.Question with question words:Peter: "When do you play football?" - Peter asked me when I played football.
8 Reported commandsThe form is mostly: form of to tell +person + to + infinitive.Affirmative commandsFather: "Do your homework.”Father told me to do my homework.Negative commandsTeacher. "Don't talk to your neighbour."The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.
9 RequestsThe basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ‚to‘ + infinite verb.Example:“Say hello to your mum.“She asked me to say hello to my mum.Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urge.Example:“You must read that book.“He advised / urged me to read that book.The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.Example:“Let’s go to the cinema.“He suggested going to the cinema.He suggested that we should go.to the cinema.