2“I speak English.”direct speechHe says that he speaks English.reported speech (no backshift)reported speech (backshift)He said that he spoke English.
3StatementsIf the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech.Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked in an office.
4When transforming statements, check whether you have to change: Pronounspresent tense verbs (3rd person singular)place and time expressionstenses (backshift)
5Backshift of tensesfromtoSimple PresentSimple PastPast PerfectPresent PerfectwillwouldThe verbs could, should, would, might, must, needn’t, ought to, used to do not normally change.Example:He said, “She might be right.” – He said that she might be right.
6Shifting of expressions of time Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday." Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.this (evening)that (evening)today/this daythat daythese (days)those (days)nowthen(a week) ago(a week) beforelast weekendthe weekend before / the previous weekendheretherenext (week)the following (week)tomorrowthe next/following day
7Reported questionsIf you put a question into Reported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements:changing of the person,backshift of tenses,changing of expressions of time.In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement. That's why the word order is: subject - verbQuestion without question words (yes/no questions):Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if) I played football.Question with question words:Peter: "When do you play football?" - Peter asked me when I played football.
8Reported commandsThe form is mostly: form of to tell +person + to + infinitive.Affirmative commandsFather: "Do your homework.”Father told me to do my homework.Negative commandsTeacher. "Don't talk to your neighbour."The teacher told me not to talk to my neighbour.
9RequestsThe basic rule for requests is: introductory clause + ‚to‘ + infinite verb.Example:“Say hello to your mum.“She asked me to say hello to my mum.Advise expressions with must, should and ought are usually reported using advise / urge.Example:“You must read that book.“He advised / urged me to read that book.The expression let’s is usually reported using suggest. In this case, there are various possibilities for reported speech: gerund or statement with should.Example:“Let’s go to the cinema.“He suggested going to the cinema.He suggested that we should go.to the cinema.