2Lesson B : Grammar When changing direct speech into indirect Reported SpeechWhen changing direct speech into indirectspeech, we have to take care of the followingchanges:
3Lesson B Examples : Direct : Someone says, “ I’ve eaten lunch.” I Tense1) The tense does not change if the reporting verb is in the present, , present perfect or futureExamples :Direct : Someone says, “ I’ve eaten lunch.”Indirect : He says that he has eaten lunch.Direct : someone says, “ I enjoyed it.”Indirect : He says that he enjoyed it.
4Lesson B When the reporting verb is in the past form (said, told) but reports or tells about things as a \general truth.Examples :Direct : He said, “Nitroglycerine is explosive.”Indirect : He said that nitroglycerine is explosive.Direct : She told me, “The earth moves round the sun.Indirect : She told me that the earth movesround the sun.
5Lesson B3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense (said, told)Direct Speech Indirect Speech1) present simple (V.1) ) past simple (V.2)present progressive ) past progressive(is/am/are + V1+.ing) (was/were + V1+.ing)present perfect ) past perfect (had + V.3)(has/have + V3)
6Lesson B3) The verb form in indirect speech will be changed into the past when the reporting verb is in the past tense (said, told)Direct Speech Indirect Speech4) past simple (V.2) ) past perfect (had.+V.3)modal ) modal(will/can/may + V.1) (would/could/might+V.1)6) must ) had to
7Direct Speech Statement Indirect Speech Statement Lesson B Examples :Direct Speech StatementIndirect Speech StatementMac : I need a holiday.Sue : I’m going home.Ted : I don’t like tea.Ann : I have finished it.Sam : I spoke to them.Lyn : I went home early.Jim : I had seen the film before.Joe : I can swim.Lee : I will be at home.Pat : I may arrive later.Don : I could help you.Ron : You should see the film.Paul : I must go.Mac said that he needed a holiday.Sue said that she was going home.Ted said he didn’t like tea.Ann said she had finished it.Sam said he spoke to them.Sam said he had spoken to them.Lyn said she went home early.Lyn said she had gone home early.Jim said he had seen the film before.Joe said he could swim.Lee said he would be at home.Pat said she might arriveDon told me he could help me.Ron told me I should see the film.Paul said he must go.Paul said he had to go. he might arrive
8Lesson B II. Pronouns, Adjective, Adverb Pronoun (I, we, you and possessive adjective my, your must be changedDirect : Bill said, “I’m on holiday with my friend.”Indirect : Bill said that he was on holiday with his friend.2) AdverbAdverbs telling about place and time must be changed in the indirect speech.
9Lesson B Table for changing place and time Direct Speech StatementIndirect Speech Statementherethis/thesenowtodaytonighttomorrowYesterdayagothis + the placenext week/yearlast weektherethat/thosethenthat daythat nightthe next day/the following day/on+ name of daythe day before/the previous day/on+ bane of daybefore/previouslythat/the + placethe following week/yearthe week before/the previous week
10Lesson B Indirect Question The rules about tense, pronoun, adjective and adverbcan be applied to questions in the same way as theyapply to statements but use different reporting verbs –ask / wonder/ want to know in indirect question.The policeman asked the men what they were doing.– The policeman asked the men, “What are you doing?”= The policeman asked the men what they were doing.– She asked, “How is your brother?”= She asked how my brother was.
11Lesson BWh- questionsThe subject and verb are not inverted in indirect speech– “What are you doing?”– The policeman asked the men what they were doing.subject verbShe asked John who paid the waiter.subj. + V + obj.
12Lesson B Speaker’s Words – “What do you want? – “Where does she live?” – “Why did you say that?”Indirect Question– I asked what she wanted.– They asked where she lived.– She asked why I had said that.
13Lesson B 2) Yes / no questions Put if or whether before the indirect question ( subject + verb ),we don’t use Verb to do ( do, does or did )Speaker’s Words Indirect Question– “Do you want a drink?” – He asked if I wanted a drink.– “Are you hungry?” – I wondered if she was hungry.– “Can you speak Chinese?” – They wanted to know whether Icould speak Chinese.
14Lesson B Example : – He asked me if (whether) I was tired. After the word “ask” there is an object to follow( me, him, John )Example :– He asked me if (whether) I was tired.– I asked him who he was looking for.– She asked John who paid the waiter.
15Lesson B We use indirect speech in reporting “order, 4) Order, request, warning, advice, invitationWe use indirect speech in reporting “order,request, warning, advice and invitation” byusing the pattern : verb + object + to infinitive.The reporting verb used in reporting thesesentences are as follows : tell, ask, warn, advise,invite, remind.
16Lesson B Speaker’s Words Indirect Speech – “Wait outside.” – “Could you carry somebags, Jim?”– “Keep out of this roomat all times.”– “You should phonethe police?– “Would you like to havedinner with me?”– She told the man towait outside.– I asked Jim to carrysome bags.– He warned them tokeep out of that roomat all times.– I advised him to phonethe police.– She invited me to havedinner with her.
17Lesson B Speaker’s words Indirect speech 5) We use the pattern “verb + to infinitive” in reporting about “offer, promise, and threat”.Speaker’s words Indirect speech– Can I do the washing up? – I offered to do thewashing up.– “I’ll phone the police!” – She threatened tophone the police.
18Lesson B Speaker’s words Indirect speech In reported requests, advice, commands, warnswhich are in negative form, use the pattern of “not +to infinitive”Speaker’s words Indirect speech– “Don’t be stupid.” – She told me notto be stupid.– “Don’t wait for me.” – She told me not towait for her.– “Don’t go on holiday yet.” – She advised him not to go on holiday yet.
19Lesson B – She forbade him to go. Note : the verb “forbid” can be used without “not”because it has the negative meaning.– She forbade him to go.
20Lesson B Note: The verbs in the same group of “say” can be used without objects.admit deny report feel think answer indicate believe hope understand declare observe mention notice remark prove (etc.)The verbs in the same group of “tell” must have object.advise notify teach assure promise warn convince remind inform show (etc.)
21Lesson B 1 2 3 Practice Choose the best answer. “I have something to show you,” I said to her.I told her ……………… .“Are you leaving today or tomorrow morning?” said his secretary.He said, “My wife has just been made a judge.”He said that … .123
22Lesson B4. “Will you practice English every day?” asked the teacher.The teacher asked the student … .“If you give me some wire, I’ll mend the fuse for you,” said my cousin.Ae asked … .7. I don’t know when … .8. The young man asked Mary … .33411
23Lesson B 9. Ask him ……………… his job. 10. He said, “Get out of my way.” 11. No one knows where ……………… . 12. He asked me ……………… .13. “Follow that car,” Nucha said to the taxi- driver.14. “Don’t argue with you father,” I said.15. “Wait for me at the bridge,” said the young man. The young man told her … .16. “Let’s go to the cinema,” said Ann.2143434