2 He said he was feeling ill. REPORTED SPEECHWhat is it ? How do you use it?He said he was feeling ill.Where’s Tom?We use it when we want to tell another person about a conversation that took place in the past (e.g telephone call, news or a story that someone told us, etc.)
3 CHANGES FROM DIRECT TO REPORTED SPEECH: Verb Tense (when the Reporting Verb is in the Past Tense – most times)Personal Pronouns, Possessives(In a logical way, see every sentence)Demonstratives: This ThatThese ThoseTime & Place Expressions
4 Verb Tense Changes: ' I know quite a lot of people here.' Robert said. DIRECT SPEECH REPORTED SPEECHVerb Tense Changes:' I know quite a lot of people here.'Robert said.Present SimpleSimple PastHe said that hequite a lot of people there'John is feeling much better 'Paul said.Present ContinuousPast ContinuousHe said that John much better' I enjoyed my holiday in the States'David said.Past PerfectHe said that he his holiday in the States'Jackie wasn´t feeling very well 'The teacher said.Past Perfect ContinuousHe said that Jackievery well' They‘ve seen the Eiffel Tower 'John said.Present PerfectHe said that theythe Eiffel Tower' I have been waiting for ages 'My father said.Present Perfect ContinuousHe said that hefor ages' Nobody had warned them about the storm ' The politician said.(No change)He said that nobody about the storm' She had been reading all day 'Brenda said.Past Perfect ContinuousShe said that she all day
5 MODAL VERBS: ' I will be here with you.' Robert promised me. Future SimpleConditionalRobert promised that hethere with me'John is going to study French 'Paul said.Be going toWas/Were going toPaul said that Johnto study FrenchMODAL VERBS:' We can start the lesson'David said.CanCouldDavid said that we start the lesson' They may come home 'My husband said.MayMightMy husband said that theycome home' You must be quiet in class 'The teacher told us.‘ I’ll see you later!’ She said.MustWill/ ShallHad toWouldThe teacher told us that webe quiet in classShe said that she ………..… me later.
6 Changes in Time and Place expressions: NowAgoThenBeforeheretheretodaythat dayThis town/ garden...That town/ garden ...tomorrowthe following day OR the day afterThese cities/ ...Those cities/ ...yesterdaythe previous day OR the day beforelast week/ month/ ...the previous week/ month ... OR the week beforeNext week / month/ ...The following week / month OR the week/ month after
7 Statements are Affirmative or Negative Sentences. REPORTING STATEMENTSStatements are Affirmative or Negative Sentences.We use a Reporting Verb + That (it can be omitted) + Subject + verb in Previous tense + ...- “The students are tired”- said the teacherThe teacher said (that) the students were tired.- “It’s the funniest show I’ve ever seen” -Joan told me.Joan told me (that) it was the funniest show she had ever seen.- “I’ll call you this afternoon” - Mary assuredMary assured us (that) she would call us that afternoon.
8 Followed by THAT ( Remember it can be omitted!) Reporting Verbs:ADDADMIT *ANSWERARGUEASSUREBOAST about *COMPLAIN to .. About *DENY *EXPLAINGRUMBLE about *OBJECT to *OBSERVEPOINT OUTPROMISEPROTEST against /about *REMARKREPLY* These verbs + ingThe most common ones:TELL + I.O. and SAYFollowed by THAT ( Remember it can be omitted!)
9 Reporting Verb + If or whether + Subject + Verb +... REPORTING QUESTIONSA) YES / NO QUESTIONS:Reporting Verb + If or whether + Subject + Verb +...(Order of Reported Question:Subject + Verb - as in Statements)“Are you working these days?” he said.He asked if/whether I was working those days. (No Question Mark)“Did you speak to John last night?” she askedShe wanted to know if I had spoken to J, the night before.
10 ask, wonder, would like/ want to know, … B) WH- QUESTIONS:Reporting Verb + Question Word(s) + Subject + Verb(The Word Order is again the same as in Statements)“Where did you go last summer?”.He asked me where I had gone the previous summer.“How long were you waiting for us?”She wanted to know how long I had been waiting for them.Introductory verbs:ask, wonder, would like/ want to know, …
11 REPORTING COMMANDS (= ORDERS) The Imperative changes into (Not) To Infinitive:He said to us: “Stay here” He told us to stay thereThe Reporting Verb must indicate “order”:He said: “Don’t mention that”He told me not to mention that.“Say that again”, he said to meHe asked me to say that again.Reporting Verbs:Tell,ask, beg, invite, warn, order, command, instruct,...
12 REPORTING SUGGESTIONS: We normally use suggest + gerundOR suggest that + ClauseLet’s, why don’t we, shall we, why not… are omitted:“Let’s go to the theatre”“Why don’t we go to the theatre?”“Shall we go to the theatre?”She suggested going to the theatreShe suggested that we (should) go to the theatre“Let’s not argue again,” he said.He suggested not arguing againHe suggested that they should not argue again.
13 beg, ask, demand, request + (not) to REPORTING REQUESTSWe use these Reporting Verbs:beg, ask, demand, request + (not) to(they usually take an Indirect Object)The word “please” is omitted.“Can I go out tonight, mum, please?” The boy begged.The boy begged to go out that night.“John, don’t open the window, please” I saidI asked /requested/begged John not to open the window.“Can you let me use your phone, please?” I asked my neighbour.I asked my neighbour to let me use her phone.“Can I use your phone?” I asked my neighbourI asked my neighbour if I could use her phone ORTo use her phone
14 Other Verbs & Structures: Agree, refuse, offer, promise, threaten+ To Infinitive:Ann: Would you wait half an hour?Tom: All rightTom agreed to wait half an hour.Chris: Would you lend me another €50?David: No, I won´t lend you any more moneyDavid refused ...Accuse of, admit, apologize for, deny, insist on+ GerundYou took my money! He accused her of ...I didn’t steal it! He denied ...I am sorry I’m late She apologized for ...Let me pay, please She insisted on ...