2Direct speech vs Indirect speech (Quoted speech vs Reported speech) Direct speech: the style used in writing to report what a speaker actually said, without introducing any grammatical changes. The speaker’s words may be written between quotation marks. For example:Actual utterance : “You are a liar.”Direct speech/Quoted speech (use Quotation Marks) : He said, “You are a liar.”
3Direct speech vs Indirect speech Indirect speech or reported speech: the speaker’s words are not reported as they were actually said but are reported, for example, in the form of a that- clause. For example:indirect speech:He said that you were a liar.
4Reported statements : tense changes Several grammatical changes occur in reported speech, including a change of tense that is called back-shift (a form that refers to an earlier time) . For example:Direct speech:She said, “I opened the can.”Reported Speech:She said that she had opened the can.Try this:He said, “You are a sight for sore eyes.”
5Reported statements: other changes Besides tense changes, other words in direct speech need to be changed. However the changes are not automatic. They depend on when and where the statement is reported.Examples:tomorrow - the next day/the following day/the previous dayyesterday - the day beforehere - therethis / that – thethis morning – that morningtoday – that daytonight – that nightnext / on Tuesday – the following Tuesdaylast Tuesday – the previous Tuesdaythe day after tomorrow – in two days’ timeago – before / previously / earlier
6QUOTED SPEECH vs REPORTED SPEECH Ann said, “I’m hungry.”Tom said, “I need mypen.”Quoted speech = giving speaker’s exact words. Quotation marks are used.REPORTED SPEECHAnn said (that) she was hungry.Tom said (that) he needed his pen.Reported speech =giving the idea (attitude / judgement) of a speaker’s words. Quotation marks are not used. Not all of the exact words are used; pronouns and verb forms may change.
7VERB FORMS in REPORTED SPEECH QUOTED: Joe said, “I feel good.”REPORTED: Joe said he felt good.QUOTED: Sue said, “I am happy.”REPORTED: Sue said she was happy.Note:In formal English, if the reporting verb(e.g. said) is in the past, the verb in the noun clause is often also in the past form.
8VERB FORMS in REPORTED SPEECH Ann said, “I am hungry.”A: What did Ann just say? I didn’t hear her.[noun clause]B: She said [she is hungry] (informal Eng).A: What did Ann say when she got home last night?B: She said she was hungry (formal Eng).Ann says (that) she is hungry.(present tense reporting verb)
9Changes in verb form Note: 1. In informal English, often the verb in the noun clause is not changed to a past form, especially when words are reported soon after they are said, as in 1.2. In later reporting, or in formal English, a past verb is commonly used, as in 2.3. If the reporting verb is present tense (e.g. says), no change is made in the noun clause verb, as in 3.
10QUOTED SPEECH SPEAKER’S EXACT WORDS Jane: Cats are fun to watch. Mike: Yes, I agree. They’regraceful and playful.Do you own a cat?QUOTING THE SPEAKERS’ WORDSJane said, “Cats are fun towatch.”Mike said, “Yes, I agree.They’re gracefuland playful. Doyou own a cat?”
11HOW TO WRITE QUOTATIONS Add a comma after said.Add quotation marks.Capitalize the first letter of the quotation.Write the quotation. Add a final period.Add quotation marks after the period.When there are two (or more) sentences in a quotation, put the quotation marks at the beginning and end of the whole quote.
12How to write quotations “Cats are fun to watch,” Jane said.Notice that a comma (not a period) is used at the end of the quoted sentence when Jane said comes after the quote.
13How to write quotations “Do you own a cat?” Mike asked.Notice that a question mark (not a comma) is used at the end of the quoted question.
14Exercise 1Write sentences in which you quote the speaker’s exact words. Punctuate carefully.Rita: I’m tired. I’m going to bed.John F. Kennedy: Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.The fox: I’m going to eat you.The hare: You have to catch me first.
15QUOTED SPEECH He said, “I work hard.” He said, “I am working hard.” He said, “I worked hard.”He said, “I have worked hard.”He said, “I am going to work hard.”He said, “I will work hard.”He said, “I can work hard.”
16REPORTED SPEECH FORMAL or LATER REPORTING He said he worked hard.He said he was working hard.He said he had worked hard.He said he was going to work hard.He said he would work hard.He said he could work hard.
17REPORTED SPEECH INFORMAL or IMMEDIATE REPORTING He said he works hard.He said he is working hard.He said he worked hard.He said he has worked hard.He said he is going to work hard.He said he will work hard.He said he can work hard.
18Reported Speech to Quoted Speech Exercise!Reported:This morning my mother asked me if I had gotten enough sleep last night. I told her that I was fine. I explained that I didn’t need a lot of sleep. She told me that I needed to take better care of myself.
19Reported Speech to Quoted Speech Answer to exercise!Quoted:1) This morning my mother said, “Did youget enough sleep last night?”2) “I’m fine,” I replied. “I don’t need a lot ofsleep.”3) She said, “You need to take better care ofyourself.”
20Exercise 2 Change the following into reported speech. Sara said, “I need some help.”Linda said, “I’m meeting Paul for dinner.”Ms Woo said, “I have studied in Manchester.”Haris said, “I forgot to pay my electric bill.”Tasha said, “I’m going to fly to Hawaii for my vacation.”I said, “I’ll carry the box up the stairs.”Elizabeth said to me, “I can teach you to cook.”
21Answers to Ex 1 Rita: I’m tired. I’m going to bed. Rita said, “I’m tired. I’m going to bed.”2. John F. Kennedy: Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.John F Kennedy said, “Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country.”3. The fox: I’m going to eat you.The hare: You have to catch me first.The fox said, “I’m going to eat you.”The hare said, “You have to catch me first.”
22Answers to Ex 2 Sara said that she needed some help. Linda said that she was meeting Paul for dinner.Ms Woo said that she had studied in Manchester.Haris said that he had forgotten to pay his electric bill.Tasha said that she was going to fly to Hawaii for her vacation.I said that I would carry the box up the stairs.Elizabeth said that she could teach me to cook.