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REPORTED SPEECH STATEMENTSQUESTIONSINSTRUCTIONS 1.

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1 REPORTED SPEECH STATEMENTSQUESTIONSINSTRUCTIONS 1

2 Direct speech vs Indirect speech (Quoted speech vs Reported speech) Direct speech: the style used in writing to report what a speaker actually said, without introducing any grammatical changes. The speakers words may be written between quotation marks. For example: Direct speech: the style used in writing to report what a speaker actually said, without introducing any grammatical changes. The speakers words may be written between quotation marks. For example: Actual utterance : You are a liar. Direct speech/Quoted speech (use Quotation Marks) : He said, You are a liar. 2

3 Direct speech vs Indirect speech Indirect speech or reported speech: the speakers words are not reported as they were actually said but are reported, for example, in the form of a that- clause. For example: Indirect speech or reported speech: the speakers words are not reported as they were actually said but are reported, for example, in the form of a that- clause. For example: indirect speech: He said that you were a liar. 3

4 Reported statements : tense changes Several grammatical changes occur in reported speech, including a change of tense that is called back-shift (a form that refers to an earlier time). For example: Several grammatical changes occur in reported speech, including a change of tense that is called back-shift (a form that refers to an earlier time). For example: Direct speech: She said, I opened the can. Reported Speech: She said that she had opened the can. Try this: Try this: He said, You are a sight for sore eyes. 4

5 Reported statements: other changes Besides tense changes, other words in direct speech need to be changed. However the changes are not automatic. They depend on when and where the statement is reported. Besides tense changes, other words in direct speech need to be changed. However the changes are not automatic. They depend on when and where the statement is reported. Examples: Examples: tomorrow- the next day/the following day/the previous day yesterday- the day before here - there this / that – the this morning – that morning today – that day tonight – that night next / on Tuesday – the following Tuesday last Tuesday – the previous Tuesday the day after tomorrow – in two days time ago – before / previously / earlier 5

6 QUOTED SPEECH vs REPORTED SPEECH QUOTED SPEECH QUOTED SPEECH 1. Ann said, Im hungry. 2. Tom said, I need my pen. pen. Quoted speech = giving speakers exact words. Quotation marks are used. REPORTED SPEECH 1. Ann said (that) she was hungry. 2. Tom said (that) he needed his pen. Reported speech = giving the idea (attitude / judgement) of a speakers words. Quotation marks are not used. Not all of the exact words are used; pronouns and verb forms may change. 6

7 VERB FORMS in REPORTED SPEECH QUOTED: Joe said, I feel good. QUOTED: Joe said, I feel good. REPORTED: Joe said he felt good. REPORTED: Joe said he felt good. QUOTED: Sue said, I am happy. QUOTED: Sue said, I am happy. REPORTED: Sue said she was happy. REPORTED: Sue said she was happy.Note: In formal English, if the reporting verb (e.g. said) is in the past, the verb in the noun clause is often also in the past form. 7

8 VERB FORMS in REPORTED SPEECH Ann said, I am hungry. Ann said, I am hungry. 1. A: What did Ann just say? I didnt hear her. [noun clause] [noun clause] B: She said [she is hungry] (informal Eng). 2. A: What did Ann say when she got home last night? B: She said she was hungry (formal Eng). 3. Ann says (that) she is hungry. (present tense reporting verb) (present tense reporting verb) 8

9 Changes in verb form Note: Note: 1. In informal English, often the verb in the noun clause is not changed to a past form, especially when words are reported soon after they are said, as in 1. 2. In later reporting, or in formal English, a past verb is commonly used, as in 2. 3. If the reporting verb is present tense (e.g. says), no change is made in the noun clause verb, as in 3. 9

10 QUOTED SPEECH SPEAKERS EXACT WORDS SPEAKERS EXACT WORDS Jane: Cats are fun to watch. Mike: Yes, I agree. Theyre graceful and playful. Do you own a cat? Do you own a cat? QUOTING THE SPEAKERS WORDS Jane said, Cats are fun to watch. Mike said, Yes, I agree. Theyre graceful and playful. Do you own a cat? 10

11 HOW TO WRITE QUOTATIONS 1. Add a comma after said. 2. Add quotation marks. 3. Capitalize the first letter of the quotation. 4. Write the quotation. Add a final period. 5. Add quotation marks after the period. 6. When there are two (or more) sentences in a quotation, put the quotation marks at the beginning and end of the whole quote. 11

12 How to write quotations Cats are fun to watch, Jane said. Cats are fun to watch, Jane said. Notice that a comma (not a period) is used at the end of the quoted sentence when Jane said comes after the quote. 12

13 How to write quotations Do you own a cat? Mike asked. Do you own a cat? Mike asked. Notice that a question mark (not a comma) is used at the end of the quoted question. 13

14 Exercise 1 Write sentences in which you quote the speakers exact words. Punctuate carefully. Write sentences in which you quote the speakers exact words. Punctuate carefully. 1. Rita: Im tired. Im going to bed. 2. John F. Kennedy: Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. 3. The fox: Im going to eat you. The hare: You have to catch me first. 14

15 QUOTED SPEECH He said, I work hard. He said, I work hard. He said, I am working hard. He said, I am working hard. He said, I worked hard. He said, I worked hard. He said, I have worked hard. He said, I have worked hard. He said, I am going to work hard. He said, I am going to work hard. He said, I will work hard. He said, I will work hard. He said, I can work hard. He said, I can work hard. 15

16 REPORTED SPEECH FORMAL or LATER REPORTING He said he worked hard. He said he worked hard. He said he was working hard. He said he was working hard. He said he had worked hard. He said he had worked hard. He said he was going to work hard. He said he was going to work hard. He said he would work hard. He said he would work hard. He said he could work hard. He said he could work hard. 16

17 REPORTED SPEECH INFORMAL or IMMEDIATE REPORTING He said he works hard. He said he works hard. He said he is working hard. He said he is working hard. He said he worked hard. He said he worked hard. He said he has worked hard. He said he has worked hard. He said he is going to work hard. He said he is going to work hard. He said he will work hard. He said he will work hard. He said he can work hard. He said he can work hard. 17

18 Reported Speech to Quoted Speech Exercise! Exercise! Reported: Reported: This morning my mother asked me if I had gotten enough sleep last night. I told her that I was fine. I explained that I didnt need a lot of sleep. She told me that I needed to take better care of myself. 18

19 Reported Speech to Quoted Speech Answer to exercise! Answer to exercise! Quoted: Quoted: 1) This morning my mother said, Did you get enough sleep last night? get enough sleep last night? 2) Im fine, I replied. I dont need a lot of sleep. 3) She said, You need to take better care of yourself. 19

20 Exercise 2 Change the following into reported speech. Change the following into reported speech. 1. Sara said, I need some help. 2. Linda said, Im meeting Paul for dinner. 3. Ms Woo said, I have studied in Manchester. 4. Haris said, I forgot to pay my electric bill. 5. Tasha said, Im going to fly to Hawaii for my vacation. 6. I said, Ill carry the box up the stairs. 7. Elizabeth said to me, I can teach you to cook. 20

21 Answers to Ex 1 1. Rita: Im tired. Im going to bed. Rita said, Im tired. Im going to bed. 2. John F. Kennedy: Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. John F Kennedy said, Ask not what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for your country. 3. The fox: Im going to eat you. The hare: You have to catch me first. The fox said, Im going to eat you. The hare said, You have to catch me first. 21

22 Answers to Ex 2 1. Sara said that she needed some help. 2. Linda said that she was meeting Paul for dinner. 3. Ms Woo said that she had studied in Manchester. 4. Haris said that he had forgotten to pay his electric bill. 5. Tasha said that she was going to fly to Hawaii for her vacation. 6. I said that I would carry the box up the stairs. 7. Elizabeth said that she could teach me to cook. 22


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