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The French Revolution 1789-1794.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution 1789-1794."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution

What Happens in France? The French overthrow the Absolute Monarchy that controlled their government A Period of Chaos and Terror follows the revolution Napoleon takes control and becomes the most powerful leader in Europe LET’S DISCUSS WHY & HOW…

3 Causes of the French Revolution
The Enlightenment Abuse of Absolutism American Revolution Estate System


5 Abuse of Absolutism After Louis XIV, all French kings abused their power. Louis XVI was abusing his power in 1780’s and 1790’s. In that time, the French peasants were starving and Louis was spending too much while overtaxing the people.

6 He will be overthrown during the French Rev.
Louis XVI He will be overthrown during the French Rev.

7 American Revolution (Cont.)
French paid huge amounts of money in American Revolution. King Louis XVI had to raise taxes – the French people were not happy with Louis! Decide to follow the example set by the Americans!

8 The Estate System First Estate - Clergy of Catholic Church
France was divided in 3 Social Classes, called “Estates” First Estate - Clergy of Catholic Church Second Estate – The Nobility Third Estate - Rest of France broken up into three other groups

9 Problem with this System!
The percent of the population of each estate was disproportionate to the land they controlled 1st Estate: >1% of the population, 10% of land 2nd Estate: 2% of the population, 20% of land 3rd Estate: <97% of the population, <50% of land!

10 The Third Estate Bourgeoisie - Middle Class - well educated and big into enlightenment. City Workers - Poorer workers who needed bread and grain from countryside to live. Peasants - largest group (80% of people), paid high taxes to government and 1/2 of wages to nobles.

11 There are Three Phases to the Revolution
Moderate Revolution War and Radical Revolution Reactions to the Revolution

12 How did it all start? French Monarchs: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
Problem: They ran out of money! What Now? - Forced to call on France’s parliament, called the Estates General, for more $

13 Problem with Estates-General
Voted on Policies in France (Taxes, Laws) Each ESTATE had 1 Vote That means the 1st Estate, at >1% of the population had AS MUCH INFLUENCE as the entire 3rd Estate, which was made of <97%! 1st & 2nd Estate always voted together! 3rd Estate’s vote was always worthless That mean’s <97% of the people were overpowered by >3%!

14 What happens next… 3rd Estate protests higher taxes and are LOCKED OUT of the Estates-General Tennis Court Oath formed by 3rd Estate National Assembly formed by 3rd Estate to make decisions in France French peasants storm the Bastille & the Revolution has begun!

15 Storming of the Bastille
Storming of the Bastille had peasants and city workers FIGHTING against guards. – July 11, 1789 Set up as a protection of the National Assembly because king refused to recognize them. After winning at Bastile, king forced to recognize Assembly.

16 Declaration of the Rights of Man
August 26, Modeled after the Declaration of Independence “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”

17 Women’s March on Versailles
“October Days” Women of Paris, fueled by a shortage of bread stormed the Royal granaries. Forced King to move to Paris

18 Limited Monarchy Formed
Louis tries to escape. He’s captured and forced to agree to a limited monarchy. This included the Legislative Assembly (like our congress) Forced to agree to August Decree and D.O.R.M.

19 Positives of Assembly Rule
Assembly ended the right of hereditary privilege and aristocrats had to start paying taxes. Set up guaranteed rights of citizens. Restricted rights of Church. Administrative and Judicial reforms.

20 Problems in the Monarchy
Constitution formed in 1791 and French Assembly ruled terribly. King had the right to veto laws. Assembly dominated by the conflict. Foreign Invasion Emigres Army

21 Extremists Take Over ‘Sans-Culottes’ took control of French government
extreme radicals form clubs – largest of which was the Jacobin club.

22 Extremists Take Over 1791 – Grirondists = Moderate Nationalists
The Jacobins took control of French army to fight invaders Start to go after the emigres who had left the country Executed the King

23 The Terror After the execution in 1792, the country was in chaos.
A group called the “Committee of Public Safety” gains power & was going to kill all “traitors to the revolution” to bring order.


25 Invasion of Foreign Armies
Most of Europe attack France – some to bring back King, some to break France and its territories up. After the death of the king, France almost falls to outsiders. The French Armies taken over by Jacobins. Institute conscription, change leaders of army to be good soldiers. Nationalism basically invented

26 Nationalism is Born Stories Flags Duty Songs Symbols War

27 French Nationalism Lady Liberty
Tri-Colored Flag – Blue is St. Martin of the poor, white is the old French aristocratic flag, red is for St. Dennis the patron Saint of Paris.

28 John-Louis David

29 Maximillien Robespierre
Leader of the “terror” Killed thousands in public executions using the guillotine Marie Antoinette too!!! Eventually was executed himself!

30 Robespierre’s Supreme Being
Revolution started a new calendar to brake from the Christian God – called the Revolutionary Calander. Wanted to start a religion based upon the concept of the Supreme Being Cult of the Supreme Being One of the things that lead to his demise.

31 How did the Terror End? National Assembly drafted a new government – with a 5 man committee called the Directory. By 1799, there will be only one - Napoleon Bonaparte.

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