2 LET’S DISCUSS WHY & HOW… What Happens in France?The French overthrow the Absolute Monarchy that controlled their governmentA Period of Chaos and Terror follows the revolutionNapoleon takes control and becomes the most powerful leader in EuropeLET’S DISCUSS WHY & HOW…
3 Causes of the French Revolution The EnlightenmentAbuse of AbsolutismAmerican RevolutionEstate System
5 Abuse of AbsolutismAfter Louis XIV, all French kings abused their power.Louis XVI was abusing his power in 1780’s and 1790’s.In that time, the French peasants were starving and Louis was spending too much while overtaxing the people.
6 He will be overthrown during the French Rev. Louis XVIHe will be overthrown during the French Rev.
7 American Revolution (Cont.) French paid huge amounts of money in American Revolution.King Louis XVI had to raise taxes – the French people were not happy with Louis!Decide to follow the example set by the Americans!
8 The Estate System First Estate - Clergy of Catholic Church France was divided in 3 Social Classes, called “Estates”First Estate - Clergy of Catholic ChurchSecond Estate – The NobilityThird Estate - Rest of France broken up into three other groups
9 Problem with this System! The percent of the population of each estate was disproportionate to the land they controlled1st Estate: >1% of the population, 10% of land2nd Estate: 2% of the population, 20% of land3rd Estate: <97% of the population, <50% of land!
10 The Third EstateBourgeoisie - Middle Class - well educated and big into enlightenment.City Workers - Poorer workers who needed bread and grain from countryside to live.Peasants - largest group (80% of people), paid high taxes to government and 1/2 of wages to nobles.
11 There are Three Phases to the Revolution Moderate RevolutionWar and Radical RevolutionReactions to the Revolution
12 How did it all start? French Monarchs: Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Problem: They ran out of money!What Now? - Forced to call on France’s parliament, called the Estates General, for more $
13 Problem with Estates-General Voted on Policies in France (Taxes, Laws)Each ESTATE had 1 VoteThat means the 1st Estate, at >1% of the population had AS MUCH INFLUENCE as the entire 3rd Estate, which was made of <97%!1st & 2nd Estate always voted together!3rd Estate’s vote was always worthlessThat mean’s <97% of the people were overpowered by >3%!
14 What happens next…3rd Estate protests higher taxes and are LOCKED OUT of the Estates-GeneralTennis Court Oath formed by 3rd EstateNational Assembly formed by 3rd Estate to make decisions in FranceFrench peasants storm the Bastille & the Revolution has begun!
15 Storming of the Bastille Storming of the Bastille had peasants and city workers FIGHTING against guards. – July 11, 1789Set up as a protection of the National Assembly because king refused to recognize them.After winning at Bastile, king forced to recognize Assembly.
16 Declaration of the Rights of Man August 26, Modeled after the Declaration of Independence“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
17 Women’s March on Versailles “October Days”Women of Paris, fueled by a shortage of bread stormed the Royal granaries.Forced King to move to Paris
18 Limited Monarchy Formed Louis tries to escape.He’s captured and forced to agree to a limited monarchy.This included the Legislative Assembly (like our congress)Forced to agree to August Decree and D.O.R.M.
19 Positives of Assembly Rule Assembly ended the right of hereditary privilege and aristocrats had to start paying taxes.Set up guaranteed rights of citizens.Restricted rights of Church.Administrative and Judicial reforms.
20 Problems in the Monarchy Constitution formed in 1791 and French Assembly ruled terribly.King had the right to veto laws.Assembly dominated by the conflict.Foreign InvasionEmigres Army
21 Extremists Take Over ‘Sans-Culottes’ took control of French government extreme radicals form clubs – largest of which was the Jacobin club.
22 Extremists Take Over 1791 – Grirondists = Moderate Nationalists The Jacobinstook control of French army to fight invadersStart to go after the emigres who had left the countryExecuted the King
23 The Terror After the execution in 1792, the country was in chaos. A group called the “Committee of Public Safety” gains power & was going to kill all “traitors to the revolution” to bring order.
25 Invasion of Foreign Armies Most of Europe attack France – some to bring back King, some to break France and its territories up.After the death of the king, France almost falls to outsiders.The French Armies taken over by Jacobins.Institute conscription, change leaders of army to be good soldiers.Nationalism basically invented
26 Nationalism is BornStoriesFlagsDutySongsSymbolsWar
27 French Nationalism Lady Liberty Tri-Colored Flag – Blue is St. Martin of the poor, white is the old French aristocratic flag, red is for St. Dennis the patron Saint of Paris.
29 Maximillien Robespierre Leader of the “terror”Killed thousands in public executions using the guillotineMarie Antoinette too!!!Eventually was executed himself!
30 Robespierre’s Supreme Being Revolution started a new calendar to brake from the Christian God – called the Revolutionary Calander.Wanted to start a religion based upon the concept of the Supreme BeingCult of the Supreme BeingOne of the things that lead to his demise.
31 How did the Terror End?National Assembly drafted a new government – with a 5 man committee called the Directory.By 1799, there will be only one - Napoleon Bonaparte.