2 The Old OrderFrance was the richest and most powerful monarchy in Europe.Working men and women wanted a better life (more rights)Influenced by American Revolution
3 French Society Divided The Estates GeneralFrance’s caste (social) systemFirst Estate – ClergySecond Estate - NobilityThird Estate – Everyone else97% of population
4 French Society Divided (cont) The Second and Third Estate began having grievances with each otherThe quality of life for the Third Estate was horribleMany nobles felt that they belonged living in a palace
5 Growing Unrest Third Estate began to call for change A growing population raised the cost of livingThe government was also in a financial crisis
6 Calling The Estates Together 1789The King called the Estates togetherwhich had not been called since 1614Representatives from each estate met with the King.Third Estate wanted to be equal with other Estates.
7 Calling The Estates (cont) The King would eventually lock the third estate out of the meetingThe Third Estate would form the national Assembly and take the Tennis Court Oath
8 Constitutional Government Violence swept the countrysidethe National Assembly worked to form a new government.Peasant unrest and violence forced the National Assembly to make reforms
9 Constitutional Government (cont) Nobles voted to end their privilegesInspired by the American Revolution, The French wrote their own Declaration of RightsConstitutional Government in France led to unrest and violence
10 A Call For Revolt National Assembly wanted to change French social orderThe kings planed to dissolve the National Assembly
11 Storming the BastilleThe king refused to accept any new reforms and the declaration of rights.Oct. 1789thousands of women demanded breadmarched on the kings palace at VersaillesThe king agreed to move to Paris at the demands of French women.
12 Call For Revolt (cont)Violence also erupted in the countryside after the fall of the BastillePeasants rebelled against feudal lords.This was called the Great Fear
14 The Declaration of Rights Influenced by Locke, Montesquieu, and RousseauAll people are equal before the lawIt guaranteed freedom of speech, press, and religionIt did not grant equal rights to women
15 The Constitution of 1791 Kept the monarchy Limited royal powers. Unicameral houseits members were chosen by voters.The right to vote was limited to males who paid a minimum tax.Some the reforms went too farfor others not far enough.
16 Decline of the Monarchy Constitutional Government limited the kings powerThe king was caught fleeing France during the “Great Fear”France fell into a war, social upheaval was the result
17 The French Republic France was now a republic instead of a Monarchy. Political power in a legislature based on universal male suffrage.This begins a new era of freedom
18 Death of A King December 1792 Louis XVI was tried and convicted of conspiring against the liberty of a nation.In January 1793, Louis XVI was beheaded by the guillotine.
20 Spreading the Revolution European Monarchs feared the French Revolution.It influenced many monarchs to make changes.France’s leaders were determined to overthrow royalty everywhere.
21 Spreading the Revolution (cont) To spread revolution, the National Convention adopted conscription.Jacobins and Girondists began to fight in the National Convention.Jacobins took over the Convention and accused Girondists of being royalists.
22 The Reign of TerrorThe Jacobins set out to crush all opposition within France.The Committee of Public Safetyunder Maximilian RobespierreNeighborhood watch committeeshunted down suspected traitors
23 The Reign of Terror (cont) Marie-AntoinetteLouis XVI’s wife was taken to the guillotineInnocent people were put to deathRobespierre was killedothers feared he would have them killed
26 The Directory After Robespierre’s death a new constitution was written.Brought control of the government under the middle class.DirectorsExecutive committee of five menRuled with two-house legislature
27 Review Who was Robespierre? What was the Reign of Terror? What was the Committee of Public Safety?