The French Revolution The French Revolution was was violent, expensive, and ultimately it leads to a strong man leader taking control.
Long Term Causes Enlightenment ideas of classical liberalism advocated reform of social order American Revolution Social Stratification French government was corrupt & ineffective. Louis XVI not suited to be an absolute monarch His queen hated and lack of sympathy with the people. Bankruptcy of the government and enormous debt! Why?........WARS!!!!!! –French debt stood at 4 billion livres ($250 billion today)
The Estates General of France The Estates General of France was similar to the English Parliament.
Growing Discontent in France In the 1700’s the population of France grew. The Nobles and Clergy both attempted to gain revenue. The Bourgeoisie wanted political power. The Nobles and Clergy resented the power of the king and the bourgeoisie. The Third Estate wanted liberty and equality. The Ancien Regime or old order is divided into three classes or estates which causes widespread resentment.
Financial Crisis in France in 1789 Louis XV dies in 1774. Louis XVI takes over with his bride Marie Antionette. France has huge debts, partly from helping the U.S. in the Revolutionary War and deficit spending. Louis XVI’s advisors all advised him to tax the first two estates. In 1789 Louis XVI called the Estates General for the first time in 175 years.
The Formation of the National Assembly On May 5, 1789 Louis XVI tells the Estates General to meet separately and then vote. The Third Estate refuses. On June 17, 1789 the Third Estate proclaims itself the National Assembly. Louis XVI has the doors to the Estates General locked. The National Assembly met and declared the Tennis Court Oath. July 14, 1789 - The Bastille falls
The End of the Old Regime in France After the Bastille falls General Lafayette takes control of Paris with the National Guard. The Flag of France changes to the Tricolor - red, white, and blue. The National Assembly takes control of the government. The Declaration of the Rights of Man adopted : liberty, equality, and fraternity. The Assembly rejects the, “Rights of Women.”
Reforms in Government Emigres flee to Great Britain, Italy, and Germany. The National Assembly divided France into 83 districts called departments. Clergy were to be elected. The Constitution of 1791 was approved, National Assembly was dissolved. Louis XVI tries to flee France. Legislative Assembly divides into conservative, liberal, and moderate.
The End of the Monarchy Emperor Leopold II of Austria and Frederick William II of Prussia vow to invade France. France declares war on Austria. The Commune takes control of Paris. National Assembly abolishes the monarchy and draws up a Constitution.
The National Convention The French elected delegates to the National Convention using universal manhood suffrage in 1792. On the right vs. left or conservatives (Girondists) vs radical (Jacobins). Marat was one of the sans-culottes. The National Convention had Louis XVI executed.
Exporting the Revolution The French have initial success in battle and want to spread the Revolution. The Monarchies of Europe formed the first coalition. The Committee of Public Safety set up to protect France. The Revolutionary Tribunal is set up to try enemies of the state.
The Committee of Public Safety The Committee begins to Draft recruits. All men between the ages of 18 - 45. Counter-revolutionary work done by the French nobility. Charlotte Corday kills Marat Jacobins - Danton and Robespierre oppose the Girondists
The Reign of Terror The Reign of Terror lasted from September 1793 - July 1794. The National Razor chopped off the head of anyone disloyal to the state. Robespierre turns on Danton and has him executed. Robespierre put to death on July, 1794.