Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity."— Presentation transcript:
The French Revolution Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity
Preconditions Crisis of the French Monarchy Needs money to pay back debt Raised taxes, angered French people Poor harvests lead to high bread prices Necker’s report Showed how much money went to government jobs Angered French people Summons the Estates General
The Revolution of 1789 Estates General had Three Estates First Estate Clergy Second Estate Nobility Third Estate Everybody else Didn’t want the wealthy (First and Second Estate) to determine the future of France.
The Revolution of 1789 Cont. Debate over Organization and Voting First and Second Estates Believed each estate should have same representation. Third Estate Believed representation should be based on population. Resolution “Doubling the Third” Third Estate elected twice as many representatives as First and Second.
The Revolution of 1789 Cont. The Cahiers de Doleances List of grievances to King. The Tennis Court Oath When locked out of normal meeting place, National Assembly met at a nearby tennis court. Made an oath to develop a French constitution Fall of the Bastille Marked the beginning of the French Revolution
The Revolution of 1789 Cont. The ‘Great Fear’ & the Night of August 4 th Rumors that the nobles were threatening to take the peasants’ farms all French citizens were subject to the same and equal laws The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Broad political principles The Parisian Women’s March on Versailles October 5, 1789 Forced Louis XVI out of Versailles Paris Louis is a prisoner of the National Assembly
Robespierre’s Rise of Power Started in the Estates General Later became involved with the Jacobins which became his followers As the Constituent Assembly fell, Robespierre gained power Elected to the Committee of Public Safety which turned into the executive govt of France during the Reign of Terror (gave him control of the inner-workings of France)
The Reign of Terror The leaders of France used the threat of a war with the Austria to rally the people under one nationalistic cause (Danton) Robespierre changed his views about the death penalty and soon became an advocate of the guillotine Around 30,000 people lost their lives under the guillotine anybody would be killed who spoke out against the government the revolution turns against Robespierre Tried to commit suicide but failed and he was later killed under the guillotine
Impact of Robespierre & The Reign of Terror As Robespierre dies so does the terror that he brought upon the people Reordered society and changed the face of France Power shifted away from the radicals to the conservatives Jacobin clubs were closed down & freedom of worship was restored How much violence is justified?
The Thermidorian Reaction Response to the excess of Reign of Terror Members of the Reign of Terror were executed- July 27, 1794 New government was more lenient Economic policy causes massive inflation Leads to the rise of the Directory (Napoleon) The term Thermidor is used to describe revolutions when the power of one radical group is passed on to a more reasonable and conservative group.
Impact of The French Revolution First example in Europe of people challenging the institution of monarchy Liberal ideas were spread throughout Europe Civil rights and property rights are improved Years of war and political instability Oppression leading to oppression French people replace a monarch with an emperor in Napoleon