2 People of France were divided into three social classes The Old OrderPeople of France were divided into three social classes
3 The Estates First Estate Second Estate Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church (1%)Owned 10% of the landPaid 2% of income to governmentRich Nobles (2% of population)Owned 20% of the landPaid no taxes
4 Third Estate Everyone else (97%) Bourgeoisie – middle class Working classPeasants – poorPaid high taxesNearly half of their wages went to the government
5 Other IssuesThe success of the American Revolution created desire for liberty and democracyEconomic troubles (food prices increased while wages dropped)Weak leadership of King Louis XVI
6 “The Atlantic Revolution” French Revolution was a part of a whole series of revolutions which took place during the late 18th century--Political agitation in England, Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland and the American coloniesOne big movement of revolutionary acts
7 The French RevolutionMore fundamental and profound consequences than the American RevolutionFrance = most powerful and populous state in EuropeMassive social revolutionWorldwide impactBecomes model for future revolutions
9 Origins Began as a revolt of the aristocracy (Second Estate) The financial woes of the monarchy led totax reform and a direct tax on all propertyAristocracy forces a meeting of the Estates General to vote on the tax (for 175 it had not met)
10 The Estates-General An old feudal assembly that had not met since 1614 Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility, All OthersEach estate had 1 vote. The two privileged estates could always outvote the Third Estate.The Third Estate demanded change in the system of voting and announced formation of a new “National Assembly”
11 The National Assembly Representative government. Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitutionThis was the first deliberate act of the revolution.Vowed to write a new constitution
12 Louis XVI Reacts to Revolutionaries Locks them out of the meeting hallWhen they break down door in the tennis court, he surrounds his Swiss guards around the cityCitizens feared a massacre and gathered weapons to defend themselves
14 Revolutionaries Storm the Bastille Events of the night of July 14, 1789Mobs stormed a prison in search of gun powderKilled the guards and paraded their heads on pikes in the street
15 “The Great Fear”Independent revolutionary agitation in the countrysideFear breeds fear and peasants start marchingWithin 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed into a war zoneThe National Assembly calls an emergency meeting and does away with class privileges, thus equalizing society
16 Declaration of the Rights of Man—August 27, 1789 Declares all men equal
17 Events from October, 1789 through September, 1791 Abolition of the French nobility as a legal orderConstitutional Monarchy establishedKing limited power and Legislative Assembly establishedNationalization of the Church--Stage set for subsequent civil war
18 LOUIS XVI Tries to Escape JUNE He is apprehended near Austria border
19 King tried for treason and executed January 21, 1793King Louis XVI was found guilty and beheaded by guillotine
20 Robespierre’s Reign of Terror Maximilien Robespierre gains power as the leader of the Committee of Public Safety.He rules France as a dictator and kills 40,000 “enemies of the revolution” by guillotine.
21 The Reign of Terror (cont) End of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794He was guillotined by members of the National Convention who feared for their own safety.
22 The Directory and Napoleon Bonaparte The Directory ( ) was established which was made up of two houses – legislative and executive branch.Napoleon’s Rise to Power came as he is named commander of Frances Army.He eventually seizes power from the Directory in 1799 and rules France until 1815.