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The French Revolution Chapter 23.

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Presentation on theme: "The French Revolution Chapter 23."— Presentation transcript:

1 The French Revolution Chapter 23

2 People of France were divided into three social classes
The Old Order People of France were divided into three social classes

3 The Estates First Estate Second Estate
Clergy of the Roman Catholic Church (1%) Owned 10% of the land Paid 2% of income to government Rich Nobles (2% of population) Owned 20% of the land Paid no taxes

4 Third Estate Everyone else (97%) Bourgeoisie – middle class
Working class Peasants – poor Paid high taxes Nearly half of their wages went to the government

5 Other Issues The success of the American Revolution created desire for liberty and democracy Economic troubles (food prices increased while wages dropped) Weak leadership of King Louis XVI

6 “The Atlantic Revolution”
French Revolution was a part of a whole series of revolutions which took place during the late 18th century --Political agitation in England, Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland and the American colonies One big movement of revolutionary acts

7 The French Revolution More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution France = most powerful and populous state in Europe Massive social revolution Worldwide impact Becomes model for future revolutions

8 The Events of the French Revolution

9 Origins Began as a revolt of the aristocracy (Second Estate)
The financial woes of the monarchy led to tax reform and a direct tax on all property Aristocracy forces a meeting of the Estates General to vote on the tax (for 175 it had not met)

10 The Estates-General An old feudal assembly that had not met since 1614
Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility, All Others Each estate had 1 vote. The two privileged estates could always outvote the Third Estate. The Third Estate demanded change in the system of voting and announced formation of a new “National Assembly”

11 The National Assembly Representative government.
Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitution This was the first deliberate act of the revolution. Vowed to write a new constitution

12 Louis XVI Reacts to Revolutionaries
Locks them out of the meeting hall When they break down door in the tennis court, he surrounds his Swiss guards around the city Citizens feared a massacre and gathered weapons to defend themselves

13 “Tennis Court Oath”

14 Revolutionaries Storm the Bastille
Events of the night of July 14, 1789 Mobs stormed a prison in search of gun powder Killed the guards and paraded their heads on pikes in the street

15 “The Great Fear” Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching Within 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed into a war zone The National Assembly calls an emergency meeting and does away with class privileges, thus equalizing society

16 Declaration of the Rights of Man—August 27, 1789
Declares all men equal

17 Events from October, 1789 through September, 1791
Abolition of the French nobility as a legal order Constitutional Monarchy established King limited power and Legislative Assembly established Nationalization of the Church --Stage set for subsequent civil war

18 LOUIS XVI Tries to Escape
JUNE He is apprehended near Austria border

19 King tried for treason and executed
January 21, 1793 King Louis XVI was found guilty and beheaded by guillotine

20 Robespierre’s Reign of Terror
Maximilien Robespierre gains power as the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. He rules France as a dictator and kills 40,000 “enemies of the revolution” by guillotine.

21 The Reign of Terror (cont)
End of Robespierre’s dictatorship on July 28, 1794 He was guillotined by members of the National Convention who feared for their own safety.

22 The Directory and Napoleon Bonaparte
The Directory ( ) was established which was made up of two houses – legislative and executive branch. Napoleon’s Rise to Power came as he is named commander of Frances Army. He eventually seizes power from the Directory in 1799 and rules France until 1815.

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