Presentation on theme: "CP Biotechnology. 13.1 Biologists Manipulate DNA Scientists use biotechnology to perform practical tasks Today, we mainly manipulate the genomes of organisms."— Presentation transcript:
13.1 Biologists Manipulate DNA Scientists use biotechnology to perform practical tasks Today, we mainly manipulate the genomes of organisms. We called this act of manipulation DNA technology.
Bacteria – Common Vector Bacteria are commonly worked with in biotechnology because they can acquire new genes in many ways! 1.“Tunnel” forms a bridge between the bacteria where DNA can travel. 2. Transformation – bacteria can “take up” free floating DNA into their own DNA
Recombinant DNA technology - technology involving the combining of DNA and/or genes from different sources (even genes from different species). Uses of DNA technology: 1.Make more nutritious crops (ex. Corn) 2.Make medicine in large quantities 3.Help us understand specifically how gene sequences work
13.2 Engineering Bacteria Bacteria contain plasmids Plasmids are small circular pieces of DNA separate from the bacterial chromosome. Carry genes (Cool ones!)
Plasmids Bacteria can transfer plasmids and scientists can manipulate plasmids to make them useful to us!! Example: 1.Insert a human insulin gene into a plasmid 2.Put the plasmid into bacteria 3.When the bacteria reproduce they make many copies of the medicine!
How Do They Do It??? 1.Cut restriction enzymes –Use restriction enzymes to cut the desired DNA/gene out of a larger chromosome 2.Paste –Put the desired DNA/gene fragment into a plasmid 3.Put the plasmid into a bacterium 4.As the bacterium reproduces it makes many copies of the desired gene!!
Genetic Engineering creates useful products 1.Bacteria make chemicals that can help clean up hazardous spills 2.Pigs & Cattle make insulin hormone in their milk for people with diabetes 3.Vaccines – make viral proteins to give patients so their bodies make antibodies from it.
13.3 Genetically Modified Organisms genetically modified organism (GMO)A genetically modified organism (GMO) is any organism that has acquired any genes artificially. TRANSGENICIf a species is called TRANSGENIC if it has foreign genetic material from a different species.
Do you eat genetically modified organisms? YES NO
Just a few…GMO FOODS Honey Cotton Tomatoes Corn Vegetable Oil Peas Potatoes
In Groups… ½ the class will use their books to compile a list of postive or good reasons/outcomes of using genetically modified organisms (plants and animals) ½ the class will use their books to make a list of negative or unwanted reasons to use genetically modified organisms.
Genetically Modified Plants Over 50% of soybean and corn crops were genetically modified in some way! Most common genetic modifications: –Genes for herbicide resistance –Genes to resist insect and fungi pests
Genetically Modified Animals Goals for GMO animals… –Produce mass quantities of hormones (insulin) –Get animals to market quicker (salmon) –Breed animals with better quality products (sheep wool) –FUN!! $$$$$$$
The GMO Controversy Although studies to date have shown that eating genetically modified foods have no negative health affects…people continue to demand stricter regulations. Major Concern: GMO food can pose unknown health risk…request strict labeling laws **”ORGANIC CRAZE”**
13.4 DNA Technologies Sometimes it is necessary to make many copies of a piece of DNA from a single sample. PCR or Polymerase Chain ReactionPCR or Polymerase Chain Reaction technique can mass produce specific sequences of DNA Thermocycler
PCR Technique PCR Technique “make a lot of DNA” from a small sample
Gel Electrophoresis!!! Used when you want to compare DNA from different sources. Produces “banding patterns” which can be compared and analyzed.
How it works! DNA “fragments” move through gel using electric current. Smaller DNA fragments move further DNA is cut into “fragments” by restriction enzymes
DNA Fingerprint Just like every person has their own unique fingerprint…everyone has a unique banding pattern produced by their restriction fragments in gel electrophoresis. 97% of our DNA is “junk” or non-coding and is extremely different from any other persons “junk” DNA. Forensics!!
Who committed the crime? Bloodstain evidence from crime scene! Suspect # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
13.5 Stem Cells and Homeotic Genes Stem cells – cells (early in development) that remain undifferentiated and have the potential to be any type of cell. Homeotic Genes – genes that control development of specific locations in organisms.