Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Biotechnology. LIKE History of Genetic Engineering Before technology, humans were using the process of selective breeding to produce the type of organism.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology. LIKE History of Genetic Engineering Before technology, humans were using the process of selective breeding to produce the type of organism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotechnology


3 History of Genetic Engineering Before technology, humans were using the process of selective breeding to produce the type of organism they want. –Ex. Dog breeding for desired traits = + Lab + Poodle Labradoodle

4 Selective Breeding Selective breeding is breeding plants or animals with the traits you desire most to have the traits increase in number in the next generation Takes time, patience and many generations before the desired trait becomes common in the population

5 We have been manipulating genes for generations!! Creating new breeds of animals and new crop plants to improve our food

6 Selective Breeding Selective breeding takes time, patience, and several generations of offspring before the desired trait becomes common in the population –Farmers have selectively breed the largest head of grain, the juiciest berries, calves of the best milk producers, eggs from the best egg laying hens, corn with the most disease resistance Milk production has increased from 4997 pounds of milk per year per cow in 1947 to 16,915 pounds of milk per cow per year in 1997 –All of the different breeds of dogs and cats have been created by selective breeding

7 Genetic Engineering Scientists now use DNA’s structure and chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules. Genetic engineering is faster and more reliable method for increasing the frequency of a trait in a population than selective breeding –Chickens engineered for meat do not need feathers it is a cost savings if they don’t have to remove the feathers in processing

8 Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering involves cutting a specific gene into a small fragment and inserting the fragment into a host of the same or different species This is often called Recombinant DNA – DNA made by connecting or recombining fragments of DNA from 2 or more different sources into one piece of DNA in one organism

9 Cutting DNA DNA molecules are large; they must be cut to be analyzed RESTRICTION ENZYMES are proteins that act as “molecular scissors” and cut both strands of DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence

10 Restriction Enzymes Restriction enzymes are extremely precise –They only cut in one place on the DNA molecule – called the RECOGNITION SEQUENCE Recognition sequences are palindromes – same sequence is found on both ends of the DNA –The same forwards and backwards

11 Restriction Enzymes The resulting DNA fragments are different sizes

12 Restriction Enzymes Cuts usually leave little single strands on the ends of the fragments called STICKY ENDS

13 Restriction Enzymes If the enzyme cuts right down the middle, the ends are BLUNT cut

14 Restriction Enzymes Pieces are glued back together using Ligase (the same enzyme that glued the Okazaki fragments together in DNA replication)

15 Utilizing Technology What good is it to perform these techniques if it we can’t use them in living cells? Luckily we can, using a process known as gene transfer to make useful organisms

16 Gene Transfer During gene transfer, a gene from one organism is placed into the DNA of another organism Resulting DNA is called recombinant DNA (DNA made by combining DNA from 2 or more sources). –Human insulin is produced using recombinant DNA. Bacteria are commonly used - but how do we get the genes into them? Bacterial Recombinant DNA

17 Bacterial Plasmids Bacteria have small, circular DNA segments called plasmids. Plasmids can be used as a vector - a DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell

18 Creation of Recombinant DNA In a lab, a plasmid is extracted from bacteria Insulin also extracted from human DNA Both gene for insulin and plasmid are cut with same restriction enzyme. –Have the same sticky ends Sticky ends Insulin gene (cut from chromosome) Bacterial Plasmid

19 Transformation The gene is inserted into the plasmid by connecting sticky ends. Plasmid taken up by bacteria through transformation. Bacteria grows in Petri dish and replicates recombinant DNA –(plasmid + insulin gene) insulin human insulin

20 Creation of Insulin As the bacteria grow and replicate, more and more bacteria are created with the human insulin gene The bacteria express the gene and create insulin for us to use

21 Transforming plant & animal cells Bacterial plasmids can also be put into plant and animal cells The plasmid incorporates into the plant or animal cell’s chromosome Transformed bacteria introduce plasmids into plant/animal cells

22 Transgenic Organisms Because the bacteria now has DNA from two species in it, it is known as a transgenic organism. Golden Rice grows With Vitamin A in it

23 Steps in Creating Recombinant DNA 1.Gene to be transferred is identified 2.Both the gene for human insulin and the bacterial plasmid are cut with same restriction enzyme 3.The gene human insulin gene is inserted into plasmid (the vector) and ligase connects the sticky ends 4. This is recombinant DNA and it is transferred to the host organism

24 Belgian Blue Cow has double muscles Genetically modified Salmon

25 Gene Transfer Vocab and Review Gene Transfer - foreign genetic material, either DNA or RNA, is introduced artificially or naturally into a cell. Recombinant DNA – DNA segment from at least 2 different organisms – fragments of DNA from different organisms is combined

26 Plasmid – A single ring of extracromosomal DNA from bacteria Vector – means of transferring DNA from another species to another cell

27 Restriction Enzyme – Bacterial proteins that cut both strands of DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence Cloning – making a clone – a genetically identical copy of an animal or plant

28 The Test Cross A special cross used to determine an unknown genotype for a trait of a organism – A test cross is used Cross the individual with the unknown phenotype with a homozygous recessive individual How does this work? A Punnett Square will give you the results you need to determine the unknown genotype for the specific trait

29 Let’s Work this out! Tt Using Punnett Squares, determine the unknown phenotype of the trait for height by crossing a homozygous dominant tall and heterozygous tall individual each with an individual that is homozygous recessive for the tall trait Outcome: If the unknown individual is homozygous dominant then 100% of the offspring have the dominant phenotype If the individual is heterozygous dominant then 50% of the offspring have the dominant phenotype and 50% have the recessive phenotype Tttt Tttt tttt tttt T T t

30 Manipulating DNA Techniques used to manipulate DNA: –DNA Extraction –Cut DNA in to smaller pieces –Identify base sequences –Make unlimited copies of DNA

31 Analyzing DNA The pieces are then analyzed –Each piece has its own unique size and shape These properties are used to perform DNA fingerprinting

32 Cutting DNA Everyones DNA sequences are unique –Recognition sequences are in different places on different people –When a restriction enzyme cuts the DNA of 2 different people, it will cut it into pieces that are different sizes Suspect #1 Suspect #2

33 DNA fingerprinting To get the genetic “fingerprint” of an organism, its DNA is first cut using restriction enzymes The mixture of DNA and enzymes are then placed into a gel to be separated by gel electrophoresis

34 Gel Electrophoresis The gel acts like a filter by separating strands of different sizes It’s like a sponge made of Jello – lots of small holes and a similar consistency

35 Gel Electrophoresis An electric current is applied to the gel to get the DNA moving –Small molecules move faster –Big molecules move slower What charge do DNA molecules have? DNA moving through gel

36 DNA Fingerprinting Once separated, a unique DNA pattern can be seen for every organism tested How might this be used to find the owner of a particular blood sample?

37 DNA fingerprinting

38 DNA Fingerprint

39 How much DNA is needed? To perform DNA fingerprinting, you need a lot of DNA Many copies of the DNA can be made using polymerase chain reaction

40 PCR

41 What was the function of the polymerase enzyme? PCR uses polymerase to build new segments of DNA

42 PCR DNA heated to separate strands PCR cycles DNA copies 12345 etc. 124816 etc. DNA polymerase adds complementary strand DNA fragment to be copied

43 Steps in Creating Recombinant DNA 1.Plasmid is extracted from bacteria 2.Insulin gene extracted from human DNA 3.Both gene for insulin and plasmid are cut with same restriction enzyme 4.The gene is inserted into plasmid by connecting sticky ends 5. Plasmid taken up by bacteria through a process called TRANSFORMATION

Download ppt "Biotechnology. LIKE History of Genetic Engineering Before technology, humans were using the process of selective breeding to produce the type of organism."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google