2Manipulating DNA 1973 Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer isolated a gene from DNA of the African clawed frog and then inserted it into the DNA of E.coli bacteria. During transcription, the bacteria produced frog rRNA and became the first genetically altered organisms.
3Genetic EngineeringProcess of manipulating genes for practical purposes.Process in which biologists make changes in the DNA code of a living organism.A technology in which the genome of a living cell is modified for medical or industrial use.
4Recombinant DNAGenetic engineering can involve building recombinant DNA.DNA molecules that are artificially made from two or more different organisms.
5Steps in a genetic engineering experiment Please look over the 4 steps in a genetic engineering experiment on page 229.
6Steps in Genetic Engineering 1. Cutting DNA 2. Making Recombinant DNA 3. Cloning 4. Screening
7Cutting DNADNA from the organism containing the gene of interest is cut by restriction enzymes.Restriction enzymes are enzymes that destroys foreign DNA molecules by cutting them at specific sites.Restriction enzymes are bacterial enzymes that recognize and bind to specific short sequences of DNA, and then cut the DNA between specific nucleotides within the sequence.
8Cutting DNA continued… The DNA from a vector is also cut.Vector – is an agent that is used to carry the gene of interest into another cell.Commonly used vectors include:VirusesYeastPlasmids – from bacterial cellsPlasmid are circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently of the main chromosomes of bacteria
9Making Recombinant DNA The DNA fragments from the organism containing the gene of interest are combined with the DNA fragments from the vector.The host cells then take up the recombinant DNA.
10CloningGene Cloning – many copies of the gene of interest are made each time the host cell reproducesRemember that bacteria reproduce asexually by binary fission so it produces identically offspring.
11ScreeningCells that received the particular gene of interest are distinguished, or separated, from the cells that did not take up the gene of interest.The cells can transcribe and translate the gene of interest to make the protein coded for in the gene.
12Techniques for genetic engineering Gel electrophoresisRFLP AnalysisPCR – Polymerase Chain Reaction
13Gel electrophoresisTechnique that uses an electric field within a gel to separate DNA molecules by their size.DNA fragments are placed at one end of a porous gel and an electric voltage is applied to the gel.
14How Gel electrophoresis Works Restriction enzymes cut DNA into fragmentsThe DNA fragments are poured into wells on a gel.
15How it works continued… The electric voltage is applied to the gel.The smaller the DNA fragment, the faster and farther it will move across the gel.
17PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a scientific technique in molecular biology to amplify a single or a few copies of a piece of DNA across several orders of magnitude, generating thousands to millions of copies of a DNA .
18PCRA method of making many copies of a piece of DNA
19PCR Large amounts of DNA can be made from a small starting sample
20RFLP Analaysis Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Restriction fragment length polymorphism or RFLP analysis is used to identify a change in the genetic sequence that occurs at a site where a restriction enzyme cuts.RFLPs can be used to trace inheritance patterns, identify specific mutations, and for other molecular genetic techniques.
22Applications of genetic engineering Gene therapy:the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease.
23Applications of genetic engineering VaccinesThrough the recombinant-DNA procedure, it is now possible to transfer the genes that stimulate antibody formation to a harmless microorganism and use it as a vaccine against the particular disease. Vaccines have been successfully created using the harmless cowpox virus, the herpes simplex type I virus (cold sores), the influenza virus, and the hepatitis B virus through gene splicing.
24Applications of genetic engineering GeneticallyModified Crops
25Applications of genetic engineering CloningA clone is a member of a population of genetically identical cells produced from a single cell.In 1997, Ian Wilmut cloned a sheep called Dolly.
27Applications of genetic engineering Transgenic OrganismsAn organism described as transgenic, contains genes from other species.
28Transgenic Microorganisms Transgenic bacteria produce important substances useful for health and industry. Transgenic bacteria have been used to produce:insulingrowth hormoneclotting factor
29Transgenic Plants Transgenic plants are now an important part of our food supply.Many of these plants contain a gene that produces a natural insecticide, so plants don’t have to be sprayed with pesticides.
30Transgenic AnimalsTransgenic animals have been used to study genes and to improve the food supply.Mice have been produced with human genes that make their immune systems act similarly to those of humans. This allows scientists to study the effects of diseases on the human immune system.Researchers are trying to produce transgenic chickens that will be resistant to the bacterial infections that can cause food poisoning.