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Points to Ponder What are three functions of DNA? Review DNA and RNA structure. What are the 3 types of RNA and what are their functions? Compare and contrast.

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Presentation on theme: "Points to Ponder What are three functions of DNA? Review DNA and RNA structure. What are the 3 types of RNA and what are their functions? Compare and contrast."— Presentation transcript:

1 Points to Ponder What are three functions of DNA? Review DNA and RNA structure. What are the 3 types of RNA and what are their functions? Compare and contrast the structure and function of DNA and RNA. How does DNA replicate? Describe transcription and translation in detail. Describe the genetic code. Review protein structure and function. What are the 4 levels of regulating gene expression. What did we learn from the human genome project and where are we going from here? What is ex vivo and in vivo gene therapy? Define biotechnology, transgenic organisms, genetic engineering and recombinant DNA. What are some uses of transgenic bacteria, plants and animals?

2 What must DNA do? 1.Replicate to be passed on to the next generation 2.Store information 3.Undergo mutations to provide genetic diversity 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

3 DNA structure: A review Double-stranded helix Composed of repeating nucleotides (made of a pentose sugar, phosphate and a nitrogenous base) Sugar and phosphate make up the backbone while the bases make up the “rungs” of the ladder Bases have complementary pairing with cytosine (C) pairs with guanine (G) and adenine (A) pairs with thymine (T) 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

4 DNA structure 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

5 How does DNA replicate? The two strands unwind by breaking the H bonds Complementary nucleotides are added to each strand by DNA polymerase Each new double-stranded helix is made of one new strand and one old strand (semiconservative replication) The sequence of bases makes each individual unique 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

6 DNA replication 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

7 RNA structure and function Single-stranded Composed of repeating nucleotides Sugar-phosphate backbone Bases are A, C, G and uracil (U) Three types of RNA –Ribosomal (rRNA): joins with proteins to form ribosomes –Messenger (mRNA): carries genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes –Transfer (tRNA): transfers amino acids to a ribosome where they are added to a forming protein 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

8 RNA structure 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

9 Comparing DNA and RNA Similarities: –Are nucleic acids –Are made of nucleotides –Have sugar-phosphate backbones –Are found in the nucleus Differences: –DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded –DNA has T while RNA has U –RNA is also found in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus while DNA is not 21.1 DNA and RNA structure and function

10 Proteins: A review Composed of subunits of amino acids Sequence of amino acids determines the shape of the protein Synthesized at the ribosomes Important for diverse functions in the body including hormones, enzymes and transport Can denature causing a loss of function 21.2 Gene expression

11 2 steps of gene expression 1.Transcription – DNA is read to make a mRNA in the nucleus of our cells 2.Translation – Reading the mRNA to make a protein in the cytoplasm 21.2 Gene expression

12 Overview of transcription and translation 21.2 Gene expression

13 The genetic code Made of 4 bases Bases act as a code for amino acids in translation Every 3 bases on the mRNA is called a codon that codes for a particular amino acid in translation 21.2 Gene expression

14 1. Transcription mRNA is made from a DNA template mRNA is processed before leaving the nucleus mRNA moves to the ribosomes to be read Every 3 bases on the mRNA is called a codon and codes for a particular amino acid in translation 21.2 Gene expression

15 Processing of mRNA after transcription Modifications of mRNA: One end of the RNA is capped Introns removed Poly-A tail is added 21.2 Gene expression

16 Visualizing the 3 steps of translation 21.2 Gene expression

17 How can we modify a person’s genome? Gene therapy - insertion of genetic material into human cells to treat a disorder –Ex vivo therapy – cells are removed for a person altered and then returned to the patient –In vivo therapy – a gene is directly inserted into an individual through a vector (e.g. viruses) or directly injected to replace mutated genes or to restore normal controls over gene activity Gene therapy has been most successful in treating cancer 21.3 Genomics

18 Ex vivo gene therapy 21.3 Genomics

19 DNA technology terms Genetic engineering – altering DNA in bacteria, viruses, plants and animal cells through recombinant DNA techonology Recombinant DNA – contains DNA from 2 or more different sources Transgenic organisms – organisms that have a foreign gene inserted into them Biotechnology – using natural biological systems to create a product or to achieve an end desired by humans 21.4 DNA technology

20 DNA technology 1.Gene cloning through recombinant DNA 2.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 3.DNA fingerprinting 4.Biotechnology products from bacteria, plants and animals 21.4 DNA technology

21 1. Gene cloning Recombinant DNA – contains DNA from 2 or more different sources that allows genes to be copies An example using bacteria to clone the human insulin gene: –Restriction enzyme – used to cut the vector (plasmid) and the human DNA with the insulin gene –DNA ligase: seals together the insulin gene and the plasmid –Bacterial cells uptake plasmid and the gene is copied and product can be made 21.4 DNA technology

22 Visualizing gene cloning 21.4 DNA technology

23 2. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) Used to clone small pieces of DNA Important for amplifying DNA for analysis such as in DNA fingerprinting 21.4 DNA technology

24 3. DNA fingerprinting Fragments are separated by their charge/size ratios Results in a distinctive pattern for each individual Often used for paternity or to identify an individual at a crime scene or unknown body remains 21.4 DNA technology

25 4. Biotechnology products: Transgenic bacteria Important uses: –Insulin –Human growth hormone (HGH) –Clotting factor VIII –Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) –Hepatitis B vaccine –Bioremediation – cleaning up the environment such as oil degrading bacteria 21.4 DNA technology

26 4. Biotechnology products: Transgenic plants Important uses: –Produce human proteins in their seeds such as hormones, clotting factors and antibodies –Plants resistant to herbicides –Plants resistant to insects –Plants resistant to frost Corn, soybean and cotton plants are commonly genetically altered In 2001: –72 million acres of transgenic crops worldwide –26% of US corn crops were transgenic crops 21.4 DNA technology

27 4. Biotechnology products: Transgenic plants 21.4 DNA technology

28 Health focus: Ecological concern about BT crops Resistance increasing in the target pest Exchange of genetic material between the transgenic plant and a related species Concern about the impact of BT crops on nontarget species 21.4 DNA technology

29 4. Biotechnology products: Transgenic animals Gene is inserted into the egg that when fertilized will develop into a transgenic animal Current uses: –Gene pharming: production of pharmaceuticals in the milk of farm animals –Larger animals: includes fish, cows, pigs, rabbits and sheep –Mouse models: the use of mice for various gene studies –Xenotransplantation: pigs can express human proteins on their organs making it easier to transplant them into humans 21.4 DNA technology


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