Presentation on theme: "Biotechnology. Cloning Production of genetically identical copies of DNA, cells or organisms Asexual reproduction Gene therapy – genes used to modify."— Presentation transcript:
Cloning Production of genetically identical copies of DNA, cells or organisms Asexual reproduction Gene therapy – genes used to modify a human Transgenic organisms
Steps of Genetic Engineering Cohen and Boyer 1973 1 st successful GE experiment frog rRNA into E. coli Steps: Cleave DNA Recombinant DNA Clone DNA Screen DNA
Recombinant DNA rDNA – contains DNA from 2 or more sources Vector (plasmid or virus) used to transfer gene of interest to host cell Restrictive enzymes and DNA ligase are used to cut and seal the ends of the gene of interest.
Bacteria cells do not have introns. For successful genetic engineering exp., the gene must not introns. RNA transcriptase can make DNA from mRNA = cDNA (DNA without introns)
Polymerase Chain Reaction Creates copies of small segments of DNA Uses DNA polymerase and nucleotides Only needs small sample Can be used to study phylogeny of human populations
DNA fingerprinting Usually follows PCR Add restrictive enzymes to sample of DNA to make many different sized fragments Gel electrophoresis is used to separate the fragments If two banding patterns match, likelihood the DNA came from same person Used in convicting criminals, detecting cancer, viral infections or genetic disorders, identifying remains of bodies
Biotechnology products Genetically modified in order to produce a product desired by humans!!!
Transgenic Bacteria Insulin, clottng factor VIII, human growth hormone, t-PA, hepatitis B vaccine Frost resistant strawberries, root protection from insects Enhancing ability to degrade substances Clean up oil, remove sulfur from coal, clean up toxic wastes Self destruct when job is done
Transgenic plants Foreign genes are placed in immature plant embryos or protoplasts (plant cells with cell wall removed) Pomato (potatoes and tomatoes) Cotton, corn and potatoes resistant to pests Soybeans – herbicide resistant Producing human proteins (hormones, clotting factors and antibodies)
Transgenic Animals Insert genes into the eggs of animals Can be done by hand or by vortex mixing bGH – bovine growth hormone – makes larger fish, cows, pigs, rabbits, sheep Gene pharming – use of transgenic farm animals to make pharaceuticals Genes that code for medical proteins are put into animal DNA and appear in milk
Genomics Study of genomes – genes Human genome project – sequenced the base pairs in the DNA of the human chromosome. HapMap Project Goal – catalog common sequence differences that occur in humans, find risk for specific illnesses Haplotypes – patterns of sequence differences
Genetic profile Identify the complete genotype of an individual, including mutations DNA chip produced by a quick swab Can help with the way we live our lives, preventive measures
Proteomics Study of the structure, function and interaction of cellular proteins Human proteome – translation of genes into proteins
Bioinformatics Application of computer technologies to the study of the genome Goal – find cause/effect relationship between genetic profiles and genetic disorders caused by multifactorial genes.
Gene Therapy Insertion of genetic material into human cells for the treatment of a disorder. Ex Vivo Gene Therapy Cells are removed, manipulated, then replaced Used in treatment of SCID and hypercholesterolemia In Vivo Gene Therapy Directly insert healthy genes to replace faulty ones Cystic fibrosis, VEGF, gene p53 and cancer