Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Create a Vocabulary 4 Square As we identify the terms in our lesson: 1.Define the term 2. Give an example 3. Draw a picture to help you remember."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up Create a Vocabulary 4 Square As we identify the terms in our lesson: 1.Define the term 2. Give an example 3. Draw a picture to help you remember the word Selective BreedingTest Cross Recombinant DNATransgenic Organism
Applied Genetics Selective Breeding: Humans determine which parental phenotypes to breed in various organisms Inbreeding: crosses between closely related individuals
Determining Genotypes Test Cross: Cross an individual with an unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual for the trait.
Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic Engineering: Modifying the DNA of an organism through laboratory techniques Recombinant DNA: DNA that is made by connecting fragments of DNA from various sources.
Transgenic Organisms contain Recombinant DNA Transgenic Organisms: Plants and animals that contain DNA from a different organism.
Creating a transgenic organism The Basics: 1.Isolate the DNA fragment of interest 2.Attach the recombinant DNA into a carrier 3.Transfer the DNA from the carrier into the host organisms genome
How do you…. Isolate the DNA fragment of interest? Restriction Enzymes: bacterial proteins that cut specific nucleotide sequences - Leave “sticky ends” - Matching sticky ends have the ability to rejoin - The key to genetic technology is the ability of the DNA from 2 different organisms to attach!!!
How do you….. Attach the recombinant DNA into a carrier? Vector: a carrier that will transport the recombinant DNA into a host organisms cells – Examples: Bacteria, viruses, mechanical – Plasmids: circular DNA found in bacteria that are often used as vectors.
How do you… Transfer the DNA from the carrier into the host organisms genome? The plasmid is transferred into the bacteria The bacteria will now transcribe and translate any DNA found on the plasmid!!! Contains the gene for human insulin Bacteria that now make human insulin!!!!
Advantages to using bacteria: Reproduce quickly Can create clones (genetically identical copies) Can mass produce the recombinant plasmid
A genetically identical copy CLONING….. What is a clone???
What types of clones are there??? Genes Animals
Gene Cloning Making copies of a specific segment of DNA
Cloning of Animals Making a genetically identical copy an animal
Gel Electrophoresis A method that separates DNA fragments by charge and size Used to identify and isolate DNA fragments
Applications of DNA technology Industrial uses: increased enzyme activity – High protein corn – Fuels from corn and seaweed Medicine – Production of human hormones, insulin, antibodies, and vaccines Agriculture – Crops that are resistant to pests and herbicides