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Presentation on theme: "KNITTING AND NONWOVEN TECH."— Presentation transcript:


2 Weft knit products Popular products: T-shirt, socks, sweaters infant/baby wears etc.

3 Warp knit products Popular products: swimwear, lingeries, curtains, football jersey, lace fabric etc.

4 KNITTING TERMINOLOGY A Stitch is the basic unit of a knitted fabric which is commonly called ‘loop’ If the feet (c) are below the binding points and the legs (b) are above, then the TECHNICAL FACE of the loop  is being viewed. If, on the other hand, the feet (c) of a loop lie above the binding points at the base, and the arms (b) lie below  then the loop is being viewed from the TECHNICAL BACK side.




8 Course There are two distinguished loops: WALE & COURSE
Wale - vertical column of loops formed by a single needle. Wales run lengthwise through out the fabric and in that sense as similar to the warp in a woven fabric. Course horizontal rows of loops. Courses run widthwise from side to side of the cloth, and in that sense as similar to the weft in a woven fabric.

9 Unit for Wale: The number of wales per cm or wales per inch
Unit for Wale: The number of wales per cm or wales per inch. This depends on upon the closeness of the needles and their thickness. The use of thinner needles can result in higher wales per unit length. Unit for Course: The number of course per cm or course per inch. It is dependent upon the height of the stitch loop.

10 Stitch density = wpcm x cpcm
The stitch density is actually a total number of stitches (loops) per unit area of the fabric eg: stitches/2cm. The higher the stitch density the thinner the fabric and vice-versa.

11 Cut and Gauge are expressions of fineness and coarseness of stitches in knitted material. The number of needles in the slot of the machine per unit length is called CUT. GAUGE is referred to the closeness of the needles in the machine. The higher the gauge number, the finer the fabric.

12 Needle bed Needle slot gauge needle

13 Needle in action

14 Knitting Element – needles There are three types of needle: i. LATCH ii.SPRING BEARD iii. COMPOUND

15 Variations of latch needle

16 Flat Knitting Machine

Yarn supply Knit fabric



20 Types of knitting stitches
i. KNIT STITCH It is produced whenever a new loop is intermeshed as a single loop through an old loop. ii.TUCK It is produced when a needle holding its loop also receives the new loop which becomes a tuck loop. Used mainly for design effect.  iii. MISS The miss yarn floating freely on the reverse side of the held loop.

21 Single Knit Fabric The fabric is produced from one set of needles. They can be produced from flat or circular machine. The fabric is unstable and thinner. Types of single knit fabric: i. Plain Jersey or Stockinette ii. Purl


23 Single knit fabrics 1. Plain Jersey or stockinette. Products:
The jersey knit is unbalanced and have the tendency to curl at the edges. It stretches approximately equally in both the length and width direction. Products: - T-shirts, - underwear, - panty-hose, - knit terry,etc. Limitation: if one yarn breaks, it causes an unraveling of adjoining stitches called run.

24 Simplest Knitted Fabric
Plain Knitted Fabric

25 Technical Face and Technical Back
Fabric Properties: Extensible Curls

26 Fabric Curling The top and bottom curl in towards the face of the fabric and the sides towards the back of the fabric.

27 Fabric Unraveling The constituent loops of plain fabric can readily be disconnected from the structure, course by course, by merely pulling at the most exposed thread. This can take place either from the end first knitted or the end last knitted.

28 Purl Fabric Produced by knitting alternate courses in opposite directions using double-ended latch needle. Because of the double hooked needle, the purl machine has the capability of producing a knit and a purl stitch in the same wale. Made on link-link knitting machine which use double headed latch needle. Purl fabric lie flat and do not curl. Famous for infants and children’s wear.

29 Technical front Technical back
Purl Fabric Purl or “links-links” fabrics differ from plain knitted fabrics in that the loops are not all meshed in the same direction. In the simplest purl fabric alternate courses are meshed in opposite directions so that the appearance of the fabric is the same from front or back. Technical front Technical back

30 Rib v/s Purl

31 Purl Beds Flat Circular

32 Knitting Action of the Purl Machine


34 DOUBLE KNIT FABRIC ii. Interlock Types of double knit fabrics:
Produced from two sets of needles and can be produced on rib and interlock machines. These fabrics are close stitch, which provides good stability, and thicker, heavier than jersey. Types of double knit fabrics: i. Rib knit fabric ii. Interlock

35 Double knit fabric Rib Knit Fabrics
Produced from two sets of needle positioned at right angles to each other. Rib-knit fabrics have a very distinct lengthwise rib effect on both sides of fabric. Rib knit lie flat and do not curl at edges. It has greater elasticity in their width than their length. Products: sweater, waistbands, knit cuffs, knit hats, men’s hosiery etc.

36 Structure for rib fabric

37 Interlock fabric Columns of wales are directly behind each other.
It is a variation of rib knits made on the interlock machine. Columns of wales are directly behind each other. Interlock is smoother, more stable, better insulators and more expensive. It does not tend to stretch easily. Fabrics are popular for blouses, dresses, and dress T-shirt.

38 Structure for interlock

39 Machine Type Single Bed Double Bed

40 Machine Type Single Bed Double Bed

41 Rib Gating Interlock Gating
Needle Gating Rib Gating Interlock Gating

42 Loop Configuration Technical front Technical back Single Jersey Rib

43 Fabric Appearance Single Jersey Rib Face Back

44 Ribs do not curl When the fabric is relaxed and under no strain in the direction of the courses, it collapses to a situation of alternate wale touching one another. The face loop wale tend to move over and in front of the reverse loop wale.

45 Ribs are thicker Hence a rib is theoretically twice as thick and half the width of an equivalent plain fabric, but it has twice as much width-wise recoverable stretch.

46 Interlock Fabric

47 The interlock fabric is a variation of the rib fabric, resembling two separate 1 x 1 rib fabrics inter-knitted. The fabric is relatively firm and smooth. Interlock has the technical face of plain fabric on both sides but its smooth surface cannot be stretched out to reveal the reverse meshed loop wales because the wales on each side are exactly opposite to each other and are locked together

48 Machine Type Single Bed Double Bed

49 Rib Gating Interlock Gating
Needle Gating Rib Gating Interlock Gating

50 Needles & loops in interlock gating

51 Loop Configuration Technical front Technical back Single Jersey
Interlock The fabric has technical face of plain fabric on both sides

52 Each interlock pattern row requires two feeder courses each with a separate yarn which knits on separate alternate needles producing two half-gauge 1x1 rib courses whose sinker loop cross over each other, thus odd feeders will produce alternate wale of loops on each side and even feeders will produce the other wale.

53 Interlock fabric properties
The positioning of one set of ribs between the other gives a smooth surface and prevents the relaxed fabric from contracting in width like a 1x1 rib so that thickness is obtained without widthwise contraction. It is obvious that the fabric will have these additional properties: Surface smooth Does not curl; fabric lies flat Heavier and narrower than rib

54 Interlock Cam System


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