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Lecture # 6 knitting fundamentals.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture # 6 knitting fundamentals."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture # 6 knitting fundamentals

2 Knitting Fundamentals
Knitting Definition

3 Knitting is one of several ways to turn thread or yarn into cloth
Knitting is one of several ways to turn thread or yarn into cloth. Unlike woven fabric, knitted fabric consists entirely of horizontal parallel courses of yarn. The courses are joined to each other by interlocking loops in which a short loop of one course of yarn is wrapped over the bight of another course. Knitting can be done either by hand, described below, or by machine. In practice, hand knitting is usually begun (or "cast on") by forming a base series of twisted loops

4 Knitting is a process in which one thread is used to make loops and then newly formed loops are passed through previously formed loops and top and bottom loops are joined with the help of head and feet



7 Lecture # 7 Knitting Fundamentals

8 Knitting Fundamentals
Basic Elements in knitting is Stitch or Course


10 Stitch Details loop Loop insertion through loop Joining of two loops
Knitted fabric flexibility depends upon loop structure Loops have many shapes and types

11 Loop An extended portion of a regular string Has no end
It is part of main string Have balance shape Is made with the help of any tool which is able to pull the string from a certain point

12 Loop Insertion Loop is inserted through an other previously held loop with the help of needle Needle should have the ability to hold fresh loop during insertion period Needle is responsible to make new loops and hold the previous sloop Loop insertion Animation Knitting Cycle

13 Website address for knitting cycle php?ss=3&sss=1&stage=3

14 Lecture # 8 Classification of knitting

15 Knitting Classification
Based upon Knitting Procedure

16 Warp and Weft Warp Knitting Weft Knitting

17 Warp Knitting In this process yarn sheet is developed (warp sheet) and then with the help of needles stitches are formed by insertion new loop into old loop.

18 Warp Knitting Machine

19 Warp Knitted Fabric

20 Weft Knitting In weft knitting single yarn is fed to knitting needles. Needle with the help of cams, sinker make a new loop and passed it into previously held loops.

21 Types of Weft Knitting Circular Knitting and Flat Knitting

22 Circular Knitting Machines
In circular knitting machines needles are fixed on a cylinder or dial in a circular shape. There are more than one feeders to feed yarn to needles at different places. In most of the cases needle bed (cylinder or dial) moves while feeders remain stationary. Diameter of cylinder and dial is fixed but in case of sock knitting machines it is changeable due to structure of socks

23 Circular Knitting Machine

24 Flat Knitting Machines
In flat knitting machines needles are fixed on a straight plate. On this machine needle bed remains stationary while yarn feeding system called carriage moves from one end to other end This machine is used to knit collars, arm bands and sweaters

25 Flat Knitting

26 Types of Circular Knitting Machines
Single Knitting Double Knitting

27 Single Knit Machine In these machines needles are fixed on cylinder and sinker are fixed on sinker ring. Needles knit with the help of sinkers.

28 Single Knit Machine

29 Double Knit Machine In double knit machine needles are fixed on dial as well as on cylinders. There is no sinkers on this machine. This machine is used to knit interlock, rib and double jerseys

30 Double Knitting

31 Double Knit Fabric Interlock--- Two sides are fully knitted, highly flexible used for under garments. Front and back wales are exactly at same point Rib--- two sides are fully knitted. Less flexible but have strong grip, used for neck, cuff opening and waist band. Front and back wales are not at same point Double Jersey Double side knitted, can have different designs on both sides

32 Interlock Machine

33 Double Knit Jacquard Knitting Machine


35 Types of Single Knitting Machines
Plain knitting Loop knitting

36 Single Knit Plain Knitting Machines
Mostly called jersey machines. On this machines, there is a set of needles and sinkers. These machines may be single track of multi track. From one track to six track machines are available. These machine can knit jersey, pique, honey comb, mini jacquard

37 Single Plain Knitting Machines
Single Track Multi Track

38 Single Track Single Knit
Track means number of cams vertically fitted In single track machine there is only one track This machine can knit only full knit fabric (single jersey)

39 Multi Track Knitting Machine
In this machine there are 2-6 tracks More number of tracks means that variety of designs can be produced On these machine many types of fabric can be produced, like, pique, pique fleece, two thread fleece and mini jacquard


41 Loop Knitting Machines
In these machines we can make loop on one or on both sides of fabric. By introducing loops we can increase the weight and bulkiness of fabric

42 Types of Loop Knitting Machines
Terry Fleece

43 Terry Fabric This fabric has loops on the surface, like towel but the length of loops is smaller than towels. Normally used to make shirts of kids or for people working under high temperature to absorb the moisture

44 Terry Knitting Machine

45 Terry Knitting Machine


47 Single Jersey Double Face Fabric

48 Three Thread Knitting Machine
This machine is used to produce fleece fabric. This fabric is plain from one side. Mostly front side is of single jersey and on back loop is inserted across various number of wales (normally two to three wales are covered). Back side is brushed with the help of raising machine to make it more comfortable and bulky as well as warm Two types of threads are used; fine for the top and course for back ( 30/16, 28/12 etc)

49 Three Thread Fleece Machine

50 Fleece Fabric

51 Striper In stripe knitting machines we can produce horizontal stripes with the help of scissors which cuts the yarn and a new yarn is fed There are two types of: Mechanical Electronic Note: in current era there is no fresh production of mechanical strip machines

52 Stripe Knitting Machine

53 Jacquard Knitting Machines
These machine are available in single and double knit technology Normally more than one colored yarns are used. Different patterns are made Normally 4-6 color machines are available


55 All types of machines can be converted into jacquard machines

56 Jacquard Machines Mechanical Jacquard Electronic Jacquard

57 Jacquard Fabric

58 Flat Knitting Single bed Double bed

59 Full Garment Flat Knitting Machines
These are latest machines and are used to make full length of garment Quite expensive Not in Pakistan Required in countries where labour is expensive

60 Gloves Knitting Machine

61 Gloves Knitting machines
In this machine bed rotates and carriage moves from one side to other

62 Lecture # 9 Warp knitting

63 Warp Knitting

64 Types of Flat Knitting Raschel, made with latch needles,
Tricot, using bearded needles.

65 Warp-Knitting When producing warp-knits, a yarn sheet is linked by stitches in longitudinal direction. Thus, each individual thread in the sheet (warp) forms a wale.

66 Warp Knitting Main products Nets Curtains Technical fabrics Covers
Covering sheets

67 Working Principle Warp sheet
Loops development with the help of needles Loops insertion with the help of needles Needle movement controls mechanically and electronically

68 Properties of Warp Knitted Fabric
More stable than knitted Big and small holes are possible Many designs are possible Highly course yarn can be used Technical fabric can be produced

69 Use of Warp Knitted Fabric
Use to fulfill technical demands, like, filters, seat covers etc Used as curtains, table covers Used as Chadar in Pakistan Not used for clothing

70 Warp Knitting Industry in Pakistan
Very small number of mills, mainly in Gujranwala One or two in Lahore

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