3 Introduction to Medicinal Fruits Definition:They are developed and ripened ovary or ovaries of a single flower or a group of flowers.In false fruits, other floral parts are included with gynaecium.Functions:1- Protection of seeds.2- Ensures the distribution of seeds.3- Nourishment of seeds.Surface:- Smooth (Capsicum), hairy (Anise),ridged (Umbelliferous fruits)…..etc.
4 Histology: 1- Epicarp: 2- Mesocarp: 3- Endocarp: The fruit wall is called pericarp that divides to:1- Epicarp:Thin or membranous (Tomato),thick and hard (Colocynth).Formed of a single layer or accompanied by one or more modified hypodermal layers (Colocynth).It may contain ca ox crystals (Coriander).2- Mesocarp:Parenchymatous containing vascular bundles and secretory structures (Umbelliferous fruits).3- Endocarp:Thin or thick and hard, formed of either a single layer or accompanied by hypodermal layers.
5 Fruit Layers 2- Epicarp (Ectocarp or Exocarp). 3- Mesocarp. 4- Endocarp.5- Placenta.6- Seed stalk.7- Seeds.
6 Kinds of Fruits Fruits are divided according to: 1- Origin. 2- Number of carpels.3- Nature of the pericarp.True:Originate fromgynaecium ofa single flower or inflorescence.False:Originate from gynaecium together with other floral parts which modify to form the main part of the fruit (e.g. Apple).
8 I-True Fruits 3- Composite: Formed from the whole inflorescence 1- Simple:Formed from a single or a syncarpous gynaecium.2- Aggregate:Developed from apocarpous gynaecium of a single flowere.g. Star-anise3- Composite:Formed from the whole inflorescence
10 A- Succulent Simple True Fruits 1- Drupe:1- Fleshy mesocarp.2- Hard endocarp.3- One seeded.Examples:ApricotBlack pepper.2- Berry:2- Leathery endocarp.3- Many seeded.Example:Capsicum
11 B- Dry Simple True Fruits 1- Dehiscent:Split open on ripening to disperse seedsi- Follicle.ii- Legume.iii- Siliqua.iv- Capsule2- Indehiscent:- Don’t split,open onripening.i- Achene.ii- Caryopsis.iii- Cypsela.iv- Samara.v- Nut.3-Schizocarpic: - Many seededmultilocularfruits.- on ripening,split into closedone seededindehiscentparts.
12 1- Dehiscent Fruits i- Follicle: 1- From monocarpell- ary ovary. 2- Split alongone side (ventral suture)ii- Legume (Pod):both ventraland dorsalsutures.iii- Siliqua:1- From monocarp.,bilocular ovary.2- Split from baseto apex.3- The seeds areattached to thereplum.
13 iv- Capsule Formed from syncarpous gynaecium. Split into valves by diferent methods:1- Septicidal (through ventral sutures).2- Loculicidal (through dorsal sutures).3- Septifragal (similar to 1 and 2 but seeds are left attached to the central axis.septifragal
14 2- Insdehiscent Fruits i- Achene: From monocarp., uniloc., sup. Ovary. Membranous pericarp, not fused with testa.ii- Caryopsis:Similar to achene but pericarp is fused with testa.
15 2- Insdehiscent Fruits v- Nut: iii- Cypsela: From bicarp., uniloc. inf.Ovary.Pericarp andtesta are notfused.iv- Samara:* From monocarp.,uniloc. Ovary.With membranouswings.v- Nut:Frommonocarp.,With woodypericarp.
22 Therapeutic uses1- Fennel is used as carminative, Antispasmodic ( in cases of GIT disorder as ( Dyspepsia, Flatulence ), Expectorant ( in cases of productive cough ).- Also used as flavouring agent2-Fennel Ext. has Antihypertensive action3- Fennel oil has Antioxidant Effect.4- Unproven folk-uses:In India, used as Diaphoretic, Emmenagogue, Lactogogue ( to increase the milk secretion)
23 2- Anise (Aniseed ) fruits Origin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Bimpinella anisumFamily; Umbelliferae- It has Aromatic taste and odour- Fruits with Hairy surfaceGeographical source- Mediterranean countries.
24 Active constituents 1- Volatile oils ( 90 % Anethole ) Therapeutic uses1- Anise is used as Carminative, Antispasmodic ( in cases of GIT disorder as ( Dyspepsia, Flatulence )2- Other uses:A- Anise oil is effective in treatment of head-lice due to v.oils action (research, 1996).B- Some folk uses:- Lactagogue, Expectorant, to facilitate birth (unproveneffects).Adulterants of Anise- Conium fruits (Hemlock) and Henbane seeds are the major adulterants of Anise.
25 3- Coriander fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Coriandrum sativumFamily; Umbelliferae- It has Aromatic taste and odourGeographical source- Mediterranean countries
26 Active constituents Therapeutic uses 1- Volatile oils ( Coriandrol, Linalool, Linalool acetate )Therapeutic uses1- Coriander is used as Carminative, Antispasmodic ( in cases of GIT disorder as ( Dyspepsia, Flatulence )2- It is used in cosmetics industry (perfumes and soap).3- AS spicy.N.B.1- Fennel, Anise and Coriander oils have estrogen like compouds, therefore they effective in reliving symptoms which with premenstrual syndrome, menopause and menstrual cycle.2- Patients with estrogen dependant tumors such as breast or ovarian cancer should not used oils with estrogen like compounds as fennel, anise and coriander oils.
27 4- Caraway fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Carum carviFamily; Umbelliferae- It has Aromatic taste and odourGeographical source- Mediterranean countries
28 Active constituents Therapeutic uses 1- Volatile oils ( Carveol, Carvone, Dihydrocarvone)Therapeutic uses1- Coriander is used as Carminative, Antispasmodic ( in cases of GIT disorder as ( Dyspepsia, Flatulence ) specially with infants2- Unproven folk uses:a- Lactagogue.b- Emmenagogue ( To induce menstruation in cases ofmenstrual cycle disorder ).c - For treatment of sore throat.d- As Appetizer For treatment of Anorexia ( appetite loss).
29 5- Dill fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Anethum graveolensFamily; Umbelliferae- Aromatic taste and odourActive constituents- Volatile oils ( Carvone)Therapeutic uses The same uses of Caraway
30 6- Cumin fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Cuminum cyminumFamily; Umbelliferae- Cumin fruits has hairy surfacewith Aromatic taste and odourGeographical source- Mediterranean countries
31 Active constituents Therapeutic uses 1- Volatile oils ( Cuminaldehyde) 1- Coriander is used as Carminative, Antispasmodic ( in cases of GIT disorder as ( Dyspepsia, Flatulence ) specially with infants2- As Spicy
32 7- Ammi visnaga fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Ammi visnagaFamily; Umbelliferae- Odourless with Bitter tasteGeographical source- Egyptian plant.
33 Active constituents - Furanochromones ( Derivative of 5,6-benzo-4-pyrone ( Visnagin, Khellin, Khellol, Khellolglucoside
34 Therapeutic uses1- Antispasmodic ( GIT, Renal spasms due to it’s Smoothmuscle relaxant2- Act as Coronary vasodilator so it is used in tttAngina pectoris attacks3- Act as Bronchodilator so used in ttt Bronchial asthmaattacks4- Act as Smooth muscle relaxant so, It is used in ttt ofRenal calculi ( facilitate the passage of renalcalculi from the ureters )Contraindications of A. visnaga1- May cause photodermatitis in sensitive individuals.2- Pregnancy due to emmenagogue and uterinestimulating activity of khellin.
35 8- Ammi majus fruitsOrigin:It is the dried ripe fruits of Ammi majusFamily; Umbelliferae- Odourless with Pungent tasteGeographical source- Egyptian plant..
36 1- It is used in ttt Leukoderma ( Vitiligo ) Active constituents1- Furanocoumarine(Derivative of 5,6-benzo-2-pyrone )( Psoralen, Bergapten)R= H PsoralenR= OCH3 BergaptenTherapeutic uses1- It is used in ttt Leukoderma ( Vitiligo )- This form of therapy based on the joint action of medicineand irradiation is called photochemotherapy
37 Vitiligo treatment: Before (left), During (middle) & After (right) - A disorder of skin pigmentation characterized by widening areas ofdepigmented skin.It’s associated with local destruction of melanocytes (cells thatproduce melanin to darken the skin).There are theories suggesting autoimmune link, hormonal connection,genetic tendencies, etc.