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12/3 Do Now Select three vocabulary from Chapter 10

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1 12/3 Do Now Select three vocabulary from Chapter 10
Write the word and definition Draw a small picture or illustration that helps to define the vocabulary word

2 The Early Middle Ages: After the Fall of the Roman Empire
Discovery Education

3 Clear Targets The student will be able to:
demonstrate understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs explain the roles of Charlemagne, Gregory VII, and Emperor Henry IV Examine the spread of Christianity

4 Chapter 10 Lesson 1 The Early middle ages
Mrs. Stoll 7th Grade World History

5 Geography of Europe In A.D. 476 Germanic groups invaded and overthrew the last emperor in Rome Europe entered a new era known as the Middle Ages, or medieval times 1,000 year period between ancient and modern times Western Europe was divided into many kingdoms Christianity strongly influenced society

6 Geography of Europe Continent of Europe is a huge peninsula with many smaller peninsulas branching out from it Most land in Europe lies within 300 miles of a seacoast Location encouraged trade and grew the economy

7 Rivers and seas Major rivers, such as the Rhine, Danube, Seine, and Po played an important role in Europe’s growth These rivers were navigable, wide or deep enough for ships to use Rivers provided protection and possibilities for trade Rhine River

8 Mountains Southwest- Pyrenees isolated Spain and Portugal from rest of Europe Alps separated Italy from central Europe Mountains made it difficult for one group to control all of Europe and encouraged independent growth

9 Kingdoms in western Europe
By A.D. 500, Western Europe had divided into many Germanic kingdoms Germanic people in Italy and Spain adopted many Roman ways People farther from Rome held on to more of their Germanic traditions Roman influence was even weaker in Britain

10 Kingdoms in western Europe
After Roman armies abandoned what is modern day England, Germanic groups known as Angles and Saxons settled there Eventually became known as Anglo-Saxons and pushed out earlier settlers known as Celts Celts fled north and west, while others crossed the sea to Ireland Scottish, Welsh, and Irish individuals are largely descended from the Celts

11 The franks in europe Franks are considered the strongest Germanic group Settled in what is now France and western Germany In 481 Clovis became king of the Franks Fifteen years later he became the first Germanic ruler to accept Catholic Christianity, before long almost all of the Franks became Catholic

12 THE FRANKS IN EUROPE After his death Frankish kings lost much of their power By 700, power had passed from kings to government officials known as mayors of the palace In 714, Charles Martel or “Charles the Hammer” became the mayor of the palace Martel had the full support of the pope, or head of the Catholic Church

13 THE FRANKS IN EUROPE Both wanted to strengthen Catholic Christianity in the lands of the old Western Roman Empire Martel’s first priority was to stop the spread of Islam into Europe By the early 700s, Muslims from North Africa had conquered Spain and entered France In 732, Martel defeated the Muslims at the Battle of Tours which stopped the advance of Islam into Western Europe

14 THE FRANKS IN EUROPE The victory at the Battle of Tours also ensured that Christianity would remain Western Europe’s major religion After Martel’s death, his son, Pepin became mayor of the palace With the support and blessing of the pope he became king of the Franks

15 THE FRANKS IN EUROPE In 754, Pepin forced a Germanic group called the Lombards to leave Rome He gave a large strip of Lombard land to the pope These lands became known as the Papal States.

16 Discovery Education A.D : Merovingian Kings Charles Martel and Pepin the Short: Pope Legitimizes King's Power: Charlemagne Crowned 1st Holy Roman Emperor

17 The emperor Charlemagne
After Pepin’s death in 768, his son Charles became king of the Franks Charles doubled the size of his kingdom to include present day Germany, France, northern Spain and most of Italy By 800, the kingdom had become an empire. For the first time since the fall of Rome, most Western Europeans were ruled by one government.

18 The emperor Charlemagne
His conquest won him the name of Charlemagne, or Charles the Great In 800, Charlemagne came to Rome and defended the pope against unruly Roman nobles On Christmas day, the pope crowned Charlemagne the new Roman emperor He worked to strengthen the empire The central government was small and Charlemagne relied on local officials called counts to help him govern

19 The emperor Charlemagne
Counts ran local affairs and raised armies Charlemagne wanted to advance education within his empire He established a school for the children of government officials Students studied religion, Latin, music, literature, and arithmetic

20 Charlemagne Discovery Education

21 Waves of invaders After Charlemagne died in 814 the empire did not last long and divided into three kingdoms In the 800s and 900s invaders swept across Europe Muslims form North Africa raided France and Italy Nomads called Magyars from Hungary invaded eastern parts of France and Italy Vikings launched raids from their homeland in Scandinavia

22 Waves of invaders Norway, Sweden, and Denmark are
all part of modern Scandinavia Viking people, known as Norsemen, or “north men” lived in villages near fjords-narrow inlets of the sea Little farmland meant Vikings depended on sea for food and trade The term Viking comes from their word for raiding Vikings were also explorers and settlers- settling in Greenland, Iceland, England, and Normandy (France), and parts of Russia and Ukraine

23 Formation of the holy roman empire
Muslim, Magyar, and Viking invaders brought much suffering to Europe’s people By the 900s, the eastern Frankish kingdom, known as Germany, became a collection of small territories ruled by nobles In 911, a group of these nobles set out to unite Germany by electing a king In 936 Duke Otto of Saxony was elected king of Germany and became a powerful ruler

24 Formation of the holy roman empire
Germanic forces defeated the Magyars and freed the pope from control of Roman nobles The pope crowned him emperor of the Romans in 962 as a reward Otto’s territory became known as the Holy Roman Empire; includes present day Germany and northern Italy

25 Formation of the holy roman empire
After Otto, two important emperors, Frederick I and Frederick II, tried to bring Germany and Italy under a strong central government The popes did not want the government to control them and joined with Italy’s cities to resist the emperor’s forces Ongoing conflict kept Germany and Italy from becoming united countries until the 1800s

26 Christianity in europe
At the time of Rome’s fall, large areas of northwestern Europe practiced a variety of non- Christian religions In the 400s, a Christian priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland and spread Christianity Patrick inspired Pope Gregory I, or Gregory the Great, to spread Christianity Gregory asked monks to become missionaries- people who are sent out to teach their religion

27 Christianity in europe
In 597, Gregory sent 40 monks to Britain to teach Christianity Eventually, by 1050, most Western Europeans had become Catholic Christians

28 The contributions of monks and nuns
Monks and monasteries provided schools and hospitals Taught carpentry, weaving, and improved farming Many monks created illuminations, which are manuscripts decorated with beautiful lettering and miniature religious paintings Monks lived in communities headed by abbots Nuns lived in convents headed by abbesses

29 Church authority Monasteries became very
wealthy and as their influence increased, abbots became active in politics Kings wanted church leaders to obey them, but popes believed that kings should obey the Church. Gregory VII, elected pope in 1073 declared that only the pope had the power to appoint high-ranking church officials These angered the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV

30 Church authority Henry insisted on naming his own bishops and Gregory declared that Henry was no longer the emperor and excommunicated him This meant he no longer had the rights of church membership and could not go to heaven German nobles supported the pope and Henry begged for forgiveness He was forgiven, but the nobles selected a new emperor who was approved by the pope

31 Church authority This struggle continued until 1122, when a new German king and a new pope agreed only the pope could choose bishops, but only the king or emperor could give them government posts This agreement is known as the Concordat of Worms –signed in the city of Worms, Germany

32 Chapter 10 Lesson 1 Review Page 251
Answer questions 1-8 use textual evidence

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