Presentation on theme: "Class Notes Chapter 6 lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages I"— Presentation transcript:
1 Class Notes Chapter 6 lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages I Class Notes Chapter 6 lesson 1 The Early Middle Ages I. The Geography of EuropeAfter the fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476, Western Europe was divided into many kingdoms.Europe is a continent, but it is also a large peninsula and most of Europe is within 300 miles of the coast. This encouraged trade and helped Europe’s economy grow.
2 C. Rivers in Europe made trade and travel easy. D. The seas and rivers offered protection from enemies. Wide rivers (like the Rhine) kept people separated so different cultures could develop.E. Europe contains many mountain ranges making it difficult for one group to rule all of Europe.
3 II. The Germanic Kingdoms The Visigoths in Spain and Ostrogoths in Italy adopted Roman ways because they were close to the center of the Roman empire.
4 B. In the early 400’s, the Angles and Saxons invaded Britain from Denmark and Germany and became the Anglo-Saxons. The Celts who had been living in Britain fled west and north (into Wales, Scotland and, Ireland)C. The Franks were a Germanic people living in what is today France. Clovis was the king of the Franks and he became Catholic and so did most of his kingdom.
5 D. After Clovis’s death, fights broke out over land and nobles called mayors settled disputes, gave out land and fought each other.E. Charles Martel was a Frankish mayor who wanted to control the nobles. The Catholic Church supported Martel.CHARLES MARTELThe land of the Franks
6 F. Muslims conquered Spain in 711 AD and threatened to spread Islam throughout Europe. In 732 AD, the Battle of Tours, Martel and the Franks defeated the Muslims, and Christianity remained Europe’s major religion.
9 G. Pepin, Charles Martel’s son became mayor after Martel’s death G. Pepin, Charles Martel’s son became mayor after Martel’s death. He donated his lands to the Catholic Church and the Pope and these lands became known as the Papal States (inside modern Italy).
10 H. Pepin’s son Charles continued to fight against the Lombards and defend the Pope. He conquered Germany and Spain and earned the name Charlemagne (Charles the Great). The Pope crowned Charlemagne the new Roman Emperor. Charlemagne made his capital in the city of Aachen.Shar – luh – maynCHARLEMAGNE
11 I. After Charlemagne’s death, his son divided the empire into three kingdoms. These kingdoms were weak and suffered invasions.J. The Vikings (from Scandinavia) raided Europe and conquered part of western France called today Normandy (after the term Norsemen-northern men)
12 K. Otto I was a powerful German king who protected the Pope K. Otto I was a powerful German king who protected the Pope. The Pope rewarded him by making him the emperor of the Romans. Otto’s territory became known as the Holy Roman Empire.
13 III. The Rise of the Catholic Church A priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland to spread the message of Christianity. He established monasteries there.Gregory the Great was pope from AD 590 until 604. He asked monks to become missionaries and spread the Christian religion. His monks converted Ethelbert, the ruler of Kent in Britain.
14 Monks played an important role in the preservation of the Latin language, knowledge and education. In 1073, Gregory VII was elected pope. He issued a decree forbidding kings from appointing high-ranking Church officials. Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor refused to obey.Henry declared that Gregory was no longer pope. Gregory excommunicated Henry IV. When the German nobles chose a new emperor Henry supported them and Henry declared war on Gregory.
15 F. In 1122, the new emperor and a new pope made an agreement called the Concordat of Worms. They agreed that only the pope could choose bishops and only the emperor could give them government jobs.SWISS GUARDS PROTECTING THE POPE