2The Rise of the Catholic Church Main Idea:The Catholic Church spread Christianity through Western Europe
3The Rise of the Catholic Church Lecture Focus:Do you have a goal that you would devote your life to reaching?? Lets look at the goals of the Catholic Church in the early Middle Ages.
4The Rise of the Catholic Church Both religion and geography played an important role in shaping life in Europe.By the time the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity had become the official religion of Rome.
5The Rise of the Catholic Church After the Roman government fell apart, the Roman Catholic Church began to play an important role in the growth of a new civilization in Western Europe.
6Why Were Monks Important? At the time Rome Fell, much of Northwestern Europe was not yet Christian.The one exception was Ireland.
7Why Were Monks Important? In the 400’s C.E., a priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland, where he spread the Christian message and set up various churches and monasteries.
8Why Were Monks Important? For several hundred years, Irish monks played an important role in preserving Roman learning and passing it on to the people of Europe.
9Why Were Monks Important? Patrick’s success inspired others, including Pope Gregory I, or also known as Gregory the Great.Gregory I was pope from 590 C.E. to 604 C.E.
10Why Were Monks Important? He wanted all of Europe to become Christian and he asked monks to become missionaries.Missionaries – Are people who are sent out to teach their religion, in this case Christianity.
11Why Were Monks Important? In 597 C.E. Gregory sent 40 monks to southern Britain to teach Christianity.The monks converted Ethelbert, the ruler of the kingdom of Kent.
12Why Were Monks Important? Ethelbert allowed the missionaries to build a church in his capital city of Canterbury.Meanwhile, Irish monks brought Christianity to northern Britain and eventually much of Europe.
13Why Were Monks Important? Most people in Western Europe had become Catholic by 1050 C.E.
14Why Were Monks Important? Monasteries played an important role in Medieval Europe… (The ruins of the monastery, Glastonbury Abbey)Monastery - A community of monks or nuns, living under religious vows.
15Why Were Monks Important? Monks schooled people, provided food, provided rest for travelers and offered hospital care for the sick.
16Why Were Monks Important? They taught carpentry, weaving and developed better methods of farming.Monks also helped to preserve knowledge and the histories of Europe.
17Why Were Monks Important? Many monasteries had Scriptoria, otherwise known as “writing rooms” where monks made hand written copies of important works.The monks copied Christian writings, including the Bible, as well as works from Roman and Greek authors.
18Why Were Monks Important? The literary efforts of these monks helped to not only preserve the history of Europe but the Latin Language as well.
19Why Were Monks Important? Over time, monasteries began to play a role in Europe’s politics.Monks took a vow of poverty, wore simple clothing, and ate very simple food, but their monasteries could make money.
20Why Were Monks Important? Each monastery produced goods, owned land and over time became wealthy.The leader of a monastery is called an Abbot, and many Abbots became involved in politics.
21Why Were Monks Important? These Abbots served as advisors to Kings and acted as rulers of the land located near monasteries.
22Why Were Monks Important? Questions:1) What was the name of the priest that traveled to Ireland, to spread Christianity?2) What is a Missionary?3) What is a Monastery?4) Every Monastery had a Scriptoria, what does this mean?5) What is an Abbot?
23Why Were Monks Important? Questions:1) What was the name of the priest that traveled to Ireland, to spread Christianity?Patrick2) What is a Missionary?People sent out to teach their religion3) What is a Monastery?A community monks or nuns, living under religious vows.4) Every Monastery had a Scriptoria, what does this mean?Writing room5) What is an Abbot?The leader of a monastery
24Why is Gregory VII Important? The growing role of Abbots and other Church leaders in politics caused many arguments over who was in charge.Kings wanted Church leaders to obey them, while the Pope claimed that he could crown kings.
25Why is Gregory VII Important? In 1073 C.E. Gregory the VII was elected Pope.He wanted to stop nobles and kings from interfering with church affairs.
26Why is Gregory VII Important? Gregory VII issued a decree, forbidding kings from appointing high ranking church officials.Decree - An official order issued by a legal authority.
27Why is Gregory VII Important? The Pope’s decree angered Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the time.For many years, the Holy Roman Emperor had appointed bishops in Germany…without this power Henry IV risked losing power to the nobles.
28Why is Gregory VII Important? Henry refused to obey Gregory VII. He declared that Gregory VII was no longer Pope…Gregory then stated that Henry was no longer emperor.
29Why is Gregory VII Important? Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry.Excommunicated – means to exclude a person from church membership…kicked out…Catholics believe that if they were excommunicated, they could not go to Heaven.
30Why is Gregory VII Important? When the German nobles defended the pope, Henry backed down. He traveled to Italy and stood barefoot in the snow outside the pope’s castle asking to be forgiven.
31Why is Gregory VII Important? Gregory forgave Henry, but the German nobles still chose a new king. When Gregory accepted the new king as emperor, Henry went to war.
32Why is Gregory VII Important? Henry captured Rome and named a new pope.Gregory drove out Henry's forces, but the dispute was not resolved.
33Why is Gregory VII Important? In 1122 C.E. a new pope and the German king finally agreed that only the pope could choose Bishops and that only the emperor could give them government jobs.
34Why is Gregory VII Important? This deal, called the Concordat of Worms, was signed in the city of Worms.Concordat – An agreement between the pope and a ruler of a country.
35Why is Gregory VII Important? By the time Innocent III became pope in 1198 C.E., the Catholic Church was at the height of its power.Innocent III was actually able to control kings because of the Churches power.
36Why is Gregory VII Important? If a ruler did not obey, Innocent III would excommunicate his or issue and interdict against the rulers people.Interdict – An issue that forbids priest from providing Christian rituals to a group of people.
37Why is Gregory VII Important? The pope hoped that by using an interdict, local people would pressure their ruler to obey.
38Why is Gregory VII Important? Questions :1) How did Gregory VII and Henry IV disagree?Gregory wanted Kings to not be able to appoint church officials and Henry disagreed with this.2) What does the term excommunicated mean?Exclude a person from church membership3) What does the term concordat mean?An agreement between the pope and a ruler of a country4) Why were monasteries important in Europe?Provided food, rest for travelers and scriptoria.