* Main Idea: * The Catholic Church spread Christianity through Western Europe
* Lecture Focus: * Do you have a goal that you would devote your life to reaching?? Lets look at the goals of the Catholic Church in the early Middle Ages.
* Both religion and geography played an important role in shaping life in Europe. * By the time the Western Roman Empire collapsed, Christianity had become the official religion of Rome.
* After the Roman government fell apart, the Roman Catholic Church began to play an important role in the growth of a new civilization in Western Europe.
* At the time Rome Fell, much of Northwestern Europe was not yet Christian. * The one exception was Ireland.
* In the 400’s C.E., a priest named Patrick traveled to Ireland, where he spread the Christian message and set up various churches and monasteries.
* For several hundred years, Irish monks played an important role in preserving Roman learning and passing it on to the people of Europe.
* Patrick’s success inspired others, including Pope Gregory I, or also known as Gregory the Great. * Gregory I was pope from 590 C.E. to 604 C.E.
* He wanted all of Europe to become Christian and he asked monks to become missionaries. * Missionaries – Are people who are sent out to teach their religion, in this case Christianity.
* In 597 C.E. Gregory sent 40 monks to southern Britain to teach Christianity. * The monks converted Ethelbert, the ruler of the kingdom of Kent.
* Ethelbert allowed the missionaries to build a church in his capital city of Canterbury. * Meanwhile, Irish monks brought Christianity to northern Britain and eventually much of Europe.
* Most people in Western Europe had become Catholic by 1050 C.E.
* Monasteries played an important role in Medieval Europe… (The ruins of the monastery, Glastonbury Abbey) * Monastery - A community of monks or nuns, living under religious vows.
* Monks schooled people, provided food, provided rest for travelers and offered hospital care for the sick.
* They taught carpentry, weaving and developed better methods of farming. * Monks also helped to preserve knowledge and the histories of Europe.
* Many monasteries had Scriptoria, otherwise known as “writing rooms” where monks made hand written copies of important works. * The monks copied Christian writings, including the Bible, as well as works from Roman and Greek authors.
* The literary efforts of these monks helped to not only preserve the history of Europe but the Latin Language as well.
* Over time, monasteries began to play a role in Europe’s politics. * Monks took a vow of poverty, wore simple clothing, and ate very simple food, but their monasteries could make money.
* Each monastery produced goods, owned land and over time became wealthy. * The leader of a monastery is called an Abbot, and many Abbots became involved in politics.
* These Abbots served as advisors to Kings and acted as rulers of the land located near monasteries.
* Questions: * 1) What was the name of the priest that traveled to Ireland, to spread Christianity? * 2) What is a Missionary? * 3) What is a Monastery? * 4) Every Monastery had a Scriptoria, what does this mean? * 5) What is an Abbot?
* Questions: * 1) What was the name of the priest that traveled to Ireland, to spread Christianity? * Patrick * 2) What is a Missionary? * People sent out to teach their religion * 3) What is a Monastery? * A community monks or nuns, living under religious vows. * 4) Every Monastery had a Scriptoria, what does this mean? * Writing room * 5) What is an Abbot? * The leader of a monastery
* The growing role of Abbots and other Church leaders in politics caused many arguments over who was in charge. * Kings wanted Church leaders to obey them, while the Pope claimed that he could crown kings.
* In 1073 C.E. Gregory the VII was elected Pope. * He wanted to stop nobles and kings from interfering with church affairs.
* Gregory VII issued a decree, forbidding kings from appointing high ranking church officials. * Decree - An official order issued by a legal authority.
* The Pope’s decree angered Henry IV, the Holy Roman Emperor at the time. * For many years, the Holy Roman Emperor had appointed bishops in Germany…without this power Henry IV risked losing power to the nobles.
* Henry refused to obey Gregory VII. He declared that Gregory VII was no longer Pope…Gregory then stated that Henry was no longer emperor.
* Pope Gregory excommunicated Henry. * Excommunicated – means to exclude a person from church membership…kicked out…Catholics believe that if they were excommunicated, they could not go to Heaven.
* When the German nobles defended the pope, Henry backed down. He traveled to Italy and stood barefoot in the snow outside the pope’s castle asking to be forgiven.
* Gregory forgave Henry, but the German nobles still chose a new king. When Gregory accepted the new king as emperor, Henry went to war.
* Henry captured Rome and named a new pope. * Gregory drove out Henry's forces, but the dispute was not resolved.
* In 1122 C.E. a new pope and the German king finally agreed that only the pope could choose Bishops and that only the emperor could give them government jobs.
* This deal, called the Concordat of Worms, was signed in the city of Worms. * Concordat – An agreement between the pope and a ruler of a country.
* By the time Innocent III became pope in 1198 C.E., the Catholic Church was at the height of its power. * Innocent III was actually able to control kings because of the Churches power.
* If a ruler did not obey, Innocent III would excommunicate his or issue and interdict against the rulers people. Interdict – An issue that forbids priest from providing Christian rituals to a group of people.
* The pope hoped that by using an interdict, local people would pressure their ruler to obey.
* Questions : * 1) How did Gregory VII and Henry IV disagree? * Gregory wanted Kings to not be able to appoint church officials and Henry disagreed with this. * 2) What does the term excommunicated mean? * Exclude a person from church membership * 3) What does the term concordat mean? * An agreement between the pope and a ruler of a country * 4) Why were monasteries important in Europe? * Provided food, rest for travelers and scriptoria.