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The Early Middle Ages Section 15.1

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1 The Early Middle Ages Section 15.1
7.34 Demonstrate understanding of the conflict and cooperation between the Papacy and European monarchs, including Charlemagne, Gregory VII, and Emperor Henry IV.

2 Geography of Europe Most of Europe lies within 300 miles of an ocean or sea, which encourages trade, fishing, and growth in Europe’s economy. There are also many rivers, which made travel in the interior of Europe easy and encouraged trade. Seas and rivers also provide safety. Wide rivers separate people and allow different cultures to develop. Mountain ranges cut off groups from one another as well.

3 The Germanic Kingdoms After the fall of Rome, Western Europe divided into many different kingdoms. Visigoths (Spain) and Ostrogoths (Italy) held on to Roman traditions. By the early 400s, the Roman legions began pulling out of Britain, Germanic tribes like the Angles and Saxons began moving in. The Celts (already in Britain) began moving further north and west.

4 Who were the Franks? During the 400s, the Franks settled the area that is now France. In 496, King Clovis of the Franks became a Catholic. Many other Franks became Catholic because of this. When Clovis died his land was divided among his sons, and then their sons, and so on over the generations.

5 Who were the Franks? By 700, not much was left, there was much fighting over land and titles by the Franks. But Charles Martel, one of the Mayors of the Palace (a title given to a noble with land) wanted to unite all of the Frankish nobles under his rule and the Catholic Church was willing to support him. But before he could unite France, he had to defeat the Muslims in Spain. In 732, Charles Martel led the Franks against the Muslims and defeated them at the Battle of Tours. This stopped the Muslims from spreading their advance into Western Europe and preserved Christianity as its major religion. When Charles Martel died, his son Pepin became mayor of the palace and with the help of the pope and most of the Frankish nobles, Pepin became the new King of the Franks.

6 Pepin the Short When the Lombards tried to threaten the pope, Pepin took his army to Italy and defeated them. He donated the land he conquered to the pope. It became the Papal States. After Pepin died, his son Charles became king. Charles also came to the aid of the pope when the Lombards tried to regain the land they lost.

7 Who was Charlemagne? Charles invaded eastern Germany and defeated the Saxons. Invaded Spain and gained the northeastern corner from the Muslims. Charles’ kingdom was an empire and earned him the name Charlemagne (Charles the Great). The pope was so impressed with Charlemagne that he crowned Charlemagne the new Roman emperor on Christmas day 800 AD.

8 Who is Charlemagne? Charlemagne made Aachen the capital of his empire.
He set up courts and education systems. Charlemagne dies in 814, his son Louis takes the throne. Louis is not a strong leader. After his death, his sons divided the kingdom into 3 empires.

9 Invaders Sweep Across Europe (800s-900s)
Muslims – attacked France and Italy Magyars came people from the east who had settled in Hungary From Scandinavia came the Vikings. People that lived in villages in the fjords (steep-sided valleys that are inlets of the sea). Skilled sailors, sturdy longboats s AD the Vikings began raiding in Europe (probably because their population was too big to support itself at home – no farmland). Robbed villages and churches of grain, animals, and anything of value.

10 Holy Roman Empire These raids helped to destroy the Frankish kingdoms.
900s – the eastern Frankish kingdom (Germany) was divided into many tiny states ruled by counts, dukes, and other nobles. 911 – they tried to unite under one king. King Otto I – fought the Magyars, sent troops to Italy to defend the pope. Pope declared him the emperor of the Romans in He was given territory that included Germany and northern Italy. It was the Holy Roman Empire.

11 Rise of the Catholic Church
Pope Gregory I (Gregory the Great), heard of a priest who went to Ireland to spread the Christian message in the 400s. This inspired Gregory’s idea for monks. He wanted all of Europe to be Christian so he asked monks to become missionaries (people who are sent out to teach their religion). 597 – he sent out 40 monks to southern Britain to teach Christianity. They converted the ruler of Kent who then allowed them to build a church. By 1050, most people in Western Europe were Catholic.

12 Monasteries and Monks Monasteries played an important role in medieval Europe. Monks schooled people Provided food and rest to travelers Offered hospital care for the sick Taught carpentry and weaving and developed methods of farming Helped preserve knowledge (made copies of important works) Monks took a vow of poverty, work simple clothes, ate simple food Monasteries could produce goods and own land. Over time some became very wealthy. Abbot – leader of the monastery, acted as adviser to the kings and ruled the lands near the monasteries.

13 Why is Gregory VII important?
The role of abbots and other church leaders in Europe’s politics was causing arguments over who was in charge. Kings wanted church leaders to do what they said The Pope on the other hand wanted to crown the kings 1073 – Gregory VII becomes pope, he wanted to stop nobles and kings from interfering in Church affairs. He issued a decree forbidding kings from appointing high-ranking Church officials. This angered Henry IV, the Holy Roman emperor. Henry refused to obey Gregory. He declared Gregory to no longer be pope. Gregory stated that Henry was no long emperor and excommunicated Henry (excluding him from Church membership – meaning he couldn’t go to heaven).

14 Why is Gregory VII important?
The German nobles defended the pope so Henry backed down and travelled to Italy to beg the pope’s forgiveness. Gregory forgave him, but the nobles chose a new king. Pope Gregory accepted the new king as the emperor. King Henry went to war. He captured Rome and named a new pope. Gregory’s allies drove out Henry’s forces. 1122 – the new pope and the German king finally agreed that only the pope could choose bishops, but the only emperor could give them jobs in the government. This deal, called the Concordat of Worms, signed in the city of Worms. Concordat is an agreement between the pope and the ruler of a country. By 1198, Pope Innocent III was in power. At this point the Catholic Church was at the height of its power. Innocent was able to control a king simply by threatening to excommunicate him.

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