6 Charlemagne ruled with tremendous power. He established a capital in Aachen and chose counts to rule his empire in his name.In return, counts were given land grants and authority.Charlemagne would send inspectors around his empire to keep tabs on the counts.
7 Charlemagne wanted rulers who could read and write. Schools were started by monasteries and monasteries were staffed by educated priests and monks.
8 Charlemagne also wanted Christianity spread throughout his empire. If you conquered people didn’t convert, they would be killed.
9 Chapter 13: The Early Middle Ages Section 2: New Invaders
10 Vikings came from Northern Europe, where they lived in Scandinavia. They lived in a mostly rural and agricultural society.When short on food, they went on raids.
11 The Vikings were skilled navigators. Their first raids took place in England and Northern France.The Vikings would use swords, axes, spears, and shiekls to attack
12 They would kill or capture anyone that stood in their way. Captives would be sold into slavery.
13 Vikings settled other countries as well: Iceland in the 700s and Greenland in 982.Leif Eriksson reached North America in 1082.
14 The Magyars started invading Europe from the East. They were nomads who settled in what is now Hungary.They attacked by horseback and usually attacked small, less defended places.
15 Muslims started raiding Southern Italy and France during the 800s and 900s. They would attack in small, fast attacks.Muslims would also gain Christian strongholds in Rome.
16 Section 3: The Feudal and Manorial system Chapter 13: The Early Middle AgesSection 3: The Feudal and Manorial system
17 Feudalism started because kings in Europe needed protection. Kings and nobles built castles, usually on hilltops.
18 Knights were used to defend the castle. Knights were usually paid by land, called a fief.Anyone who accepted a fief was called a vassal and the person whom he accepted it was his lord.This is the Feudal System
19 A knight’s chief duty was to provide military service to his lord. If a lord was captured in battle, the knight was obliged to pay ransom for his release.
20 Manors were usually owned by wealthy lords or knights. Lords needed people to farm these land so they used peasants.Manor lords would give protection and land plots in return for labor.
21 Most peasants that worked in manors were serfs. Serfs were not free to leave the manor or marry without permission from the lord.Serfdom was hereditary.
22 Three Field System was developed during this time. One field would be planted in the spring, another in fall, and other would be left alone for a year.
23 Section 4: The Growth of Monarchies Chapter 13: The Early Middle AgesSection 4: The Growth of Monarchies
24 The Anglo-Saxons were rulers of England that divided it up into seven kingdoms. Vikings would invade England in the 800s and conquer some of the kingdoms.Alfred the Great would drive the Vikings out for good by 878.
25 In 1066, the king of England died without an heir. Harold would be named king which angered William.Their armies met at the Battle of Hastings, which was won by William the Conqueror.
27 William was a strong ruler. When he died his great grandson, Henry II, would take over.He claimed French land when he married Eleanor of Aquitaine.
28 King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. Limited the king’s power.Parliament would be formed during the 1260s which would become England’s governing body.
29 When Charlemagne died, his empire was divided into two pieces. Otto the Great became king of Germany and tried to unite the German states.He would become emperor of the Romans in 962, creating the Holy Roman Empire.
31 Section 5: Power of the church Chapter 13; The Early Middle AgesSection 5: Power of the church
32 The pope is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. They were powerful political figures during the Middle Ages.Around 1100, there was an upswing of piety in Europe, which is a person’s devotion to the Church.
33 Leo IX would start to reform the Church in 1049. He helped put an end to simony and excommunicated bishops that were guilty of it.
34 Leo upset many people when he excommunicated the bishop of Constantinople in 1054, which caused a split.Roman Catholics agreed with Leo and people who sided with the bishop were Orthodox.
35 In the Early Middle Ages, monasteries were being set up all across Europe. They were paid for by local rulers.By the early 900s, monks decided that monasteries should be strictly religious places.