Presentation on theme: "An epic 1000 years in the making… A fter the death of Muhammad in 632 A.D., Muslims were united under a new Caliph, Abu Bakr. Bakr was a powerful ruler,"— Presentation transcript:
A fter the death of Muhammad in 632 A.D., Muslims were united under a new Caliph, Abu Bakr. Bakr was a powerful ruler, and with time, the Islamic Empire was ready to spread across the Mediterranean. Under the Umayyads, the Islamic Empire conquered North Africa and Spain. They soon set their sites on the rest of mainland Europe. These hopes were dashed, however, with their loss against the Franks at the Battle of Tours… W ith the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476, Europe evolved into a place where only two things mattered: loyalty to your kingdom, and loyalty to the Roman Catholic Pope. A new society evolved which centered around the Feudal hierarchy and the Christian faith… A fter Constantine split the Roman Empire in two, the Eastern Roman Empire thrived, and nearly re- conquered all of former Rome under its powerful emperor, Justinian. After Justinian’s death, however, the empire was in trouble. Now calling itself the “Byzantine Empire,” it soon lost North Africa to the invading Islamic Empire. F earful that the Islamic army would continue to defeat his empire, Byzantine Emperor Alexius I turned to the other Christian powers for help. Pope Urban II, head of the Catholic religion, saw an excellent opportunity to both increase his own power and retake Christian holy land around Jerusalem from under Muslim rule… About a thousand years ago in a region not so far far away…
Cause: Expansion of The Seljuk Turks In 1055, a Turkish leader captured Baghdad and claimed himself sultan, or “holder of power.” Under new Turkish leadership, the Arab Empire began to increase pressure on their neighbors, the Byzantine Empire…
Europe’s Cause: The Importance of Saints Saint –Someone revered for their holiness. Christians began worshiping saints –Relics Bones or objects connected with saints. –Pilgrimages Visiting a holy shrine was beneficial. –Rome –Jerusalem Why might Jerusalem be difficult for Christians to get to?
Facing constant raids from the expanding Islamic Empire… Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asks western Europe for help. Council of Clermont, 1095 –Pope Urban II challenged Christians to join in a holy war. –Offered forgiveness of sins. The Council of Clermont (1095)
The Council of Clerment “All who die shall have immediate remission of their sins!” “It is the will of God!”
Goals of the Crusades (Pope Urban’s Perspective…) 1.Save the Byzantine Empire -The Byzantine Empire were threatened by the Turks. (Not really…) 2.Retake Jerusalem -The Islamic Empire (and faith) had been spreading by 638AD it had captured the city of Jerusalem. -Slaying Christians in the Roman Empire? 3.Spread Christianity 4.Increase the power of the Church and the Pope -The Catholic Church knew that, if successful, the Crusades would bring power and prestige to the Church. 5.End the feudal wars among nobility -The Pope hoped that sending knights off to war would reduce the conflicts between nobles at home.
So who joined? The holy war attracts both peasants and nobles –Why go? Religious fervor Adventure and a chance to fight Wealth and perhaps a title? –Overall, between 100,000 – 200,000 volunteer
The First Crusade To Constantinople! Peasants and nobles from all over Western Europe make their way to Constantinople. –There, they must take an oath to Alexius I before continuing.
The First Crusade The main Crusade led by the nobles successfully takes Jerusalem in 1099. After, most of the crusaders returned home. –Some stay to establish the Four Crusader States. –“Islands of Christianity in a hostile sea of Islam”
Muslim forces recaptured Edessa in the 1140’s. Crusade sent to retake it fails miserably. –Gives Muslim forces a confidence boost. The Second Crusade X
Muslim leader Saladin retakes Jerusalem in 1187. Crusade is sent to retake it –Is successful at first Capture Acre –Later misfortunes ruin the Crusade Do not recapture Jerusalem –Establish a treaty with Saladin to allow safe passage for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. –Richard the Lionhearted The Third Crusade X
Pope Innocent III tries to establish the Fourth Crusade as a holy cause –Instead, it is led by Venetians who sack Constantinople in 1204. Were an economic competitor The Fourth Crusade
And the rest… There were several other Crusades of varying focus and success. Children’s Crusades –Italian Children’s Crusade is sent home by the Pope. –French Children’s Crusade ends in tragedy.
Goals of the Crusades… Accomplished? 1.Save the Byzantine Empire - Failed – Byzantine Empire is weakened and Constantinople is sacked in 1204! 2.Retake Jerusalem - Failed – Jerusalem remains in Muslim control. 3.Spread Christianity - Failed – Islamic world is left united and strengthened 4.Increase the power of the Church and the Pope - Success – Papacy gains much power (at first) 5.End the feudal wars among nobility -Success – Stops feudal warfare, unites kingdoms, and helps end feudalism overall
Impact and Legacy Impact on “Middle Ages” –Re-affirms power of papacy and growth of church. –Europe briefly united. Leads to “High Middle Ages” and growth of European Kingdoms. Lasting Legacy –Instability in the Middle East Religions fight over this “holy” area of the world. –Islam vs. Christianity The two are perceived as being against eachother.