Presentation on theme: "Aim: How did the clash of rulers and the Church hinder the creation of unified states in Germany and Italy? Do Now: Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1-3 The Orb,"— Presentation transcript:
Aim: How did the clash of rulers and the Church hinder the creation of unified states in Germany and Italy? Do Now: Eleanor of Aquitaine, 1-3 The Orb, Scepter and Crown, insignia of the Holy Roman Empire These objects, dating from Otto I in the 10th Century, were brought to Frankfurt for every imperial coronation
I. The Holy Roman Empire Charlemagne’s descendants inherited the title “Holy Roman Emperor” but did not rule Italy
I. The Holy Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire held parts of Italy, the pope ruled the Papal States, and Arab Muslims ruled Sicily
A. The Holy Roman Empire (Germany) The view of kings as holy and untouchable -- “Divine right theory of kingship” Original power of the HRE Origins of political instability and fragmentation of monarchical power
Otto I 936 Otto I became King of Germany. Otto developed close ties to Church in order to centralize his power in Germany. In exchange, Otto gained right to appoint German bishops and archbishops. Otto invaded Italy to protect the Pope from Italian nobles.
The Holy Roman Empire 962 - Pope John XII crowned Otto I “Emperor of the Romans” as a reward for suppressing Roman nobles Emperor Otto III (983-1002) Crown of the Holy Roman Emperor
I. The Holy Roman Empire Otto ruled Germany and northern Italy; the HRE became a major power in Europe until the 1800s The Holy Roman Empire in the 1500s
Otto was now the first Emperor in the West since Charlemagne. However, his attempt to re-create an Empire like Charlemagne’s created tensions – particularly with Italian nobles who resented growing German strength. For 250 years, German emperors were involved in Italian affairs. The Popes also came to resent the power German emperors held over church clergy in Germany and even northern Italian principalities. EUROPE, 1000 A.D. E A S T E R N
I. The Holy Roman Empire Henry III ruled at the height of the empire’s power; he viewed the church as a branch of the imperial government Henry III, called the Black or the Pious, German king (1028- 1056) and Holy Roman emperor (1046-1056)
I. The Holy Roman Empire Henry removed three anti-popes, selected a German pope, and then chose the next three popes Pope Clement II, the first pope placed on the throne by the power of the German emperors
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Henry son, Henry IV, tried to strengthen his rule but clashed with Pope Gregory VII Victory of St. Gregory VII over the pretensions of the Emperor. In the picture, the latter is at the right of and one step lower than the Pope.
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Pope Gregory believed the church was supreme; rulers and ordinary people were subject to the church and the pope
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Henry practiced lay investiture; Gregory excommunicated Henry and released his subjects from their vows of loyalty 1076 – Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Emperor Henry IV
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Fearing rebellion, Henry sought the pope’s mercy; the pope revoked his excommunication in 1077 Meeting at Canossa in 1077 – Henry, Gregory, and Matilda
CAUSESACTIONS OUTCOMES Pope Gregory excommunicates H.R.E. Henry IV; German bishops & princes side with the pope (fearing an interdict); Henry must seek the Pope’s forgiveness. Henry IV travels to Canossa. Henry is forgiven by the pope, returns home, and then punishes his German nobles for siding with the pope. The issue of lay investiture would remain undecided for another century. Representatives of Church and the emperor meet in Worms. Compromise is reached: Only the pope could now promote priests to be bishops in any kingdom; but the emperor would be given veto power over any selection he didn’t like. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S. The Concordat of Worms is signed in 1122.
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings 1122 – The investiture controversy was settled with the Concordat of Worms, which limited imperial authority and recognized the pope’s spiritual authority
The Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV’s struggle with the Pope provided a chance for German princes in the Empire to regain much of the power they had lost under Otto. A later German ruler, Frederick I, would resume the battle to assert royal authority over these princes. While Frederick was the first to actually call the German lands the “Holy Roman Empire” it was anything but a unified empire – rather, a patchwork of princely states. EUROPE, 1000 A.D. E A S T E R N Poor Rich
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Frederick Barbarossa (Frederick I ) conquered the region of Lombardy and destroyed Milan Frederic I Barbarossa and his sons King Henry IV and Duke Frederick V
A. The Holy Roman Empire (cont) HRE seeks a power base outside of Germany in northern Italy and Sicily Frederick I (Barbarossa) Frederick II (1212-1250) was the first feudal monarch to establish a centralized administration and an army of soldiers paid in cash
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Italian city-states and the pope formed the Lombard League, raised a powerful army, and defeated Frederick Frederick defeated at Parma
Instead of focusing on building up his royal power in the German states, Frederick repeatedly invaded the rich cities of Italy. CAUSESACTIONS OUTCOMES Frederick’s brutal acts angered the wealthy Italian merchants who formed the Lombard League. Lombard League fights Frederick’s army at the Battle of Legnano. The Italian foot soldiers of the Lombard League using crossbows defeat Frederick’s feudal army of mounted knights. Frederick is forced to make peace with the Pope, a weakened ruler among his German princes back home. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
. 6 Reason why German states Remain Separate and not a Unified Nation German kings getting involved in Italian politics led to continued disruptive clashes. The system of German princes being the ones to elect the king only weakened royal authority. German rulers controlled fewer “royal lands” in their kingdom to use as a base of power. (Unlike English and French kings who would quickly establish strong central authority and create the first Nation-states in Europe… PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins H.S.
Church Reform Many devout Christians called for reforms –Began in monasteries Goal of reforms: –Free Church from control of feudal lords Reforms: –Pope would be chosen by cardinals –Pope would appoint bishops and other officials
Pope Innocent III R. 1198-1216 The most powerful of the medieval popes –well educated in both canon law and theology –the dominant figure in Europe during his papacy
Fighting Heresy Pope Innocent III- condemned drunkenness, feasting, and dancing among clergy Stop spread of heresy (denial of basic church teachings) –Convert first/ crush later
The Inquisition Court set up to seek out and punish heretics –Many accused without proof Punishments- prison or death
Francis of Assisi 1182-1226 Founder of the Franciscan Order and one of the most honored saints of the Catholic faith Below: trying to convert the Egyptian sultan
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings 1200s: Innocent III, strongest of the medieval popes, increased the church’s wealth and power Pope Innocent III (c. 1161 – June 16, 1216), pope from January 8, 1198 until his death
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings Innocent III believed in the supreme power of the pope and used excommunication and the interdict to maintain control
II. Struggles between Popes and Kings The goal of uniting Germany and Italy was never achieved; they remained divided into independent cities and feudal states