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High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450 Chapter 8. Royal Power Grows Section 1.

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Presentation on theme: "High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450 Chapter 8. Royal Power Grows Section 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 High and Late Middle Ages 1050-1450 Chapter 8

2 Royal Power Grows Section 1

3 William the Conqueror Who: King of England What: conquered England & set out to control the land Where: England (Normandy, France) When: 1028-1087; 1066* Why: he conquered England to defeat his cousin & became king; change the power of England to the Normans

4 William the Conq (wksht) King of England- Edward- died w/o an heir His brother Harold inherited it But William said it was his = conquer England to take the throne = Anglo-Saxons gone- Normans are in charge

5 Common Law Who: Royal courts, Henry II What: a legal system based on customs & court rulings Where: England When: 1154 AD Why: unlike local feudal laws, this applied to all of England instead of just local; ppl brought disputes to royal courts instead of church; centralized the law

6 Henry II (workbook) Inherited the throne in England Claimed rights to rule clergy (church officials) & the royal courts— He developed common law & a jury system- unifying the legal system under one power - no longer local law but one central law

7 Jury Who: group of men that spoke the truth, Henry II What: group of men determined what cases would be brought to trial Where: England When: 1154 Why: this was an early form of today’s Grand Jury; this led to trial jury- an accused person is judged by 12 of his neighbors

8 King John Who: son of Henry II, King of England What: a clever, cruel, & untrustworthy ruler Where: Enlgand When: 1205 Why: lost a war = lost land & popularity; argued w. the Pope over his choices; angered his nobles w. oppressive taxes & abuses = Magna Carta (limited his power)

9 King John (workbook) He abused power & overtaxed his nobles = ppl unhappy =Magna Carta = limited royal power

10 Magna Carta Who: King John, groups of rebellious barons (nobles) What: a document that limited the king’s power due to his abuses Where: England When: 1215* Why: this shaped the future of English government-- this said nobles had rights (eventually given to all ppl not just nobles), made it so that the monarch had to obey the law; also introduced due process of law & Habeas Corpus

11 Due Process of Law Who: King John, townspeople What: a clause that prpotected freemen from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, &other legal actions WherE: England When: 1215 Why: formed the basis of the rights we know &have today- we have rights even when being arrested

12 Habeas Corpus Who: citizens, people that are arrested What: a right that no person can be held in prison without first being charged with a specific crime Where: England, WE When: 1215-today Why: this right was later confirmed in the Petition of Right & is still around today protecting citizens from unjust arrest

13 Parliament Who: What: Where: When: Why:

14 The Holy Roman Empire and the Church Section 2

15 Holy Roman Empire Who: Charlemagne; Otto I What: empire that ruled throughout WE from Germany to Italy Where: Central & Eastern Europe (Germany, Italy) When: 1077- Why: The Pope was the most powerful man on earth = he gave power of this Empire to the most trustworthy leaders (the Empire was “Holy”) ; largest Empire in Europe since the fall of Rome

16 Henry IV Who: King of Germany, Holy Roman Emperor What: leader of the HRE; was excommunicated by Pope in 1076 b.c. not following rules of Gregory VII Where: Germany, HRE, WE When: 1054- Why: Henry fought w Pope Gregory VII; was excommunicated; later repented & was forgiven but he led an army to Rome to force Pope into Exile (fought about Lay Investiture)

17 Henry IV (Workbook) Actions: fought w. Pope Gregory VII about Lay Investiture; later repented but led an army to Rome to kick the Pope out Effects: he was excommunicated by the Pope but later brought back into church; he signed the Concordat of Worms= took away his power to appoint religious leaders (= Pope more powerful)

18 Gregory VII Who: Pope What: Pope that instituted many church reforms such as banning Lay Invest. Where: Rome, Italy (WE) When: 1054-1077 Why: he banned the practice of Lay Investiture which caused an issue w. Henry IV; his policies created hatred & contempt b.c. ppl wanted to be independent from the church (secular)

19 Gregory VII (Workbook) Actions: caused controversy when he banned Lay Invest. ; excommunicated Henry IV for arguing about it Effects: he wanted to make the church independent of secular rulers so he banned Lay Invest- making him the most powerful b.c. he now appointed all religious officials

20 Lay Investiture Who: Gregory VII vs. Henry IV What: a church practice where an Emperor or lay person (not relig) vested a person as a religious official or presented bishops w. rings that symbolized their office Where: Rome, Italy, (WE) When: 1054-1077 Why: this caused conflict b.n Greg VII & Henry IV which led to Henry’s excommunication; ppl were mad about Gregory VII banned this- they rebelled

21 Frederick Barbarossa Who: Holy Roman Emperor, known as “Red Beard”, ambitious German ruler What: fought to bring cities into Italy under his control so he joined w. the Pope to have more control; he wanted to expand his Empire Where: Germany, Italy When: 1100-1200 Why: he wanted to build an Empire from Baltic to Adriatic Seas ; he succeeds in expanding his Empire through marriage = German Emp. Are more deeply involved in Italian affairs

22 Frederick Barbarossa (workbook) Actions: he fought to expand his Empire & succeeded in bringing Northern Italy under his power Effects: b.c. of his expansion Germany was more deeply involved in Italian affairs

23 Pope Innocent III

24 Pope Innocent III (Workbook)

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