Presentation on theme: "BellRinger As the country grew, so did its spirit of freedom. People dedicated to freedom from slavery, illiteracy, and political and social inequality."— Presentation transcript:
BellRinger As the country grew, so did its spirit of freedom. People dedicated to freedom from slavery, illiteracy, and political and social inequality fueled the reform movement and dedicated their lives to improve society. Define reform in your own word(s). Share with your shoulder partner.
SPIRIT OF REFORM Brought changes to American religion, politics, education, art & literature. Some reformers sought to improve society by forming utopias (communities based on a vision of a perfect society).
Partner Talk What reforms would you like to see in the United States in 2014?
Second Great Awakening (early 1800s) spread a new sense of religious fervor & increased involvement in social reform movements. Protestant evangelicals emphasized the ability of each person to achieve salvation These religious groups saw social reform as part of God’s plan The Second Great Awakening stirred reform movements to end, slavery, reform prisons, and ban alcoholic beverages
TEMPERANCE Drinking little or no alcohol Reformers blamed alcohol for poverty, the breakup of families, crime & insanity
HORACE MANN Leader of educational reform Lengthened the school year to 6 months, made improvements in the curriculum, doubled teachers’ salaries, & developed better ways of training teachers
3 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION Schools should be free & supported by taxes Teachers should be trained Children should be required to attend school
Partner Talk Do you think children should be required to attend school until a certain age? Explain
HIGHER EDUCATION Slowly it became available to groups who were previously denied the opportunity (like women and African Americans)
THOMAS GALLAUDET Developed a method to teach the hearing impaired Opened the Hartford School for the Deaf in CT
DOROTHEA DIX She found prisoners were living in inhumane conditions – chained to the walls with little clothing in unheated cells She learned that some inmates were guilty of no crime – they were mentally ill She made it her life’s work to educate the public as to the poor conditions for the mentally ill & prisoners
Labor Reform Many children were working long dangerous hours in the factories (remember the Lowell Mill girls) The labor reform movements purpose was to improve the working conditions
TRANSCENDENTALISTS Stressed the relations between humans & nature Writers: Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau Poets: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Walt Whitman, Emily Dickinson
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE Refusing to obey laws that you believe unjust Henry David Thoreau went to jail rather than pay a tax that supported the Mexican War. He did not believe in slavery and said that he would not support a government (by paying taxes) that allowed slavery!
HUDSON RIVER SCHOOL Mid 19 th century group of artists. Hudson River School paintings reflect three themes of America: discovery, exploration, & settlement. It wasn’t an actual school; the Hudson River was the “school” Depict the American landscape as a pastoral setting, where human beings & nature coexist peacefully. Thomas Cole was the founder of the school John James Audoban – painter that depicted birds in their natural habitat (The Birds of North America)