Presentation on theme: "Transcendentalism and the Hudson River School"— Presentation transcript:
1 Transcendentalism and the Hudson River School Interpretations of Nationalism and Sectionalism
2 ObjectivesTrace the creation of a distinctive American cultural identity by writers and artists of the period.
3 What is transcendentalism? Transcendentalism questions established cultural forms and focuses on being educated (enlightened). It urged people to fulfill their human potential and to be fully human. Also stressed self-reliance.It spread throughout religion, education, literature, philosophy, and social reform
4 TranscendentalismRomanticism is directly correlated with TranscendentalismAlso manifested in the creation of Utopian Societies like Brook Farm and OneidaGave more support to the anti-slavery movement
5 Authors Ralph Waldo Emerson- Nature Henry David Thoreau- Walden James Fenimore Cooper- Last of the MohicansLegacy lived on in Louisa Mae Alcott, Emily Dickinson, and Walt Whitman
6 What was the Hudson River School? The Hudson River School was a group of painters, led by Thomas Cole, who painted awesomely Romantic images of America's wilderness, in the Hudson River Valley and also in the newly opened West.
7 Thomas ColeThomas Cole, View of the Catskills- Early Autumn
8 Albert BierdstadtAlbert Bierdstadt- Merced River, Yosemite Valley
9 Martin Johnson HeadeMartin Johnson Meade- Newburyport Meadows
10 The Rise of Reform 2nd Great Awakening Rise of Mormonism Education Prisons and AsylumsWomen’s MovementTemperanceUtopian Communities
11 ReligionMovement from the Puritan ideals of the previous century to more evangelical.
12 2nd Great AwakeningUnitarianism: spoke of the “humanness” of God– rebuked all Puritan idealsCharles Grandison Finney- preacherStressed that people were moral free agents, but to be saved they had to hurry to salvationLed to secular (non-religious) reform movementsWomen encouraged to be missionaries
13 Rise of Mormonism Founded by Joseph Smith Led to Salt Lake City, Utah by Brigham YoungEstablished Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day SaintsExperienced persecution because of their belief and practice of polygamy
14 EducationHorace Mann- introduced public school education to New England statesStressed that school should be compulsory (children made to go)States should pay (not the federal gov)Introduced McGuffey Readers
17 Women’s Movement Catherine Beecher: one of the chief proponents of the "cult of domesticity," devoting much of her writing to domestic and household topics both ideological and practical.stressed that women should become teachers and have more autonomy and power
18 Women’s MovementLed by Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Blackwell.Held the Seneca Falls Convention in NY, where they issued the Declaration of Sentiments, which modeled after the Declaration of IndependenceStated how men had deprived women of the right to vote and equality
19 TemperanceThe attempt to limit or ban the consumption of alcohol.
21 Utopian Communities Utopia: the perfect society Brook Farm Oneida CommunityBoth failed once people, with all of their imperfections, started bickering
22 To Come….The largest and most controversial reform movement of the 19th Century: AbolitionWomen were very influential in all of the reform movements (education, prisons, abolition, religion)
23 Due Wednesday, Nov. 16 Essay: “American reform movements between 1820 and 1860 reflected both optimistic and pessimistic views of human nature and society.” Assess the validity of this statement in reference to reform movements in 3 of the following areas:Education, Temperance, Women’s Rights, Utopian experiments, and Penal institutions