5Essential QuestionHow did religion influence the social reforms in the United States during the early and mid-1800s?
6ReligionReligious camp meetings (revivals) were common in the early 1800sKnown as the Second Great AwakeningThis led to a new spirit of reformBrought changes to American religion, education, and literatureSome reformers sought to improve society by forming utopias (Perfect society)Few were able to establish lasting communities (Mormons)They were founded on impractical ideas
7A B C D Why did most utopias fail? Section 1Why did most utopias fail?A. It was too hard to implement the temperance movement.B. Many teachers lacked proper training.C. They did not take the needs of the disabled into consideration.D. They were founded on impractical ideas.ABCD
8The Religious Influence Attending revivals made men and women eager to reform both their lives and the worldAmong these were people who wanted to ban alcoholLyman Beecher, a Connecticut minister, crusaded against the use of alcohol (temperance)Beecher and other reformers used lectures, pamphlets, and revival style rallies to warn people of the dangers of liquorThe temperance movement led to some victories when Maine and other states passed laws banning to manufacture and sale of alcoholic beveragesMost of these laws were later repealed
9Reforming Education In the mid-1850’s, most schools were poorly funded Teachers lacked trainingRestrictions were placed on who could attend schools (Girls and African Americans)Massachusetts lawyer Horace Mann called for educational reforms1839- Massachusetts created the nation’s first state-supported normal school to train teachers
10Reforming Education Continued During the age of reform, many new colleges and universities were createdMost accepted only menGradually, higher education became available to groups that had been denied the opportunityOberlin College of Ohio was founded in 1833Oberlin admitted both women and African Americans
11People With Special Needs Some reformers focused on the problem of teaching people with disabilitiesThomas Gallaudet developed a method to educate people who were hearing impairedSamuel Gridley Howe developed books with large raised letters to help the visually impairedSchoolteacher Dorothea Dix worked for prison reforms after seeing prisoners chained to wallsShe also found that some people were not guilty of crimes, but were mentally illShe made it her life’s work to educate the public about poor conditions for prisoners and the mentally ill
12Cultural TrendsChanges in American society also influenced art and literatureAmerican artists developed their own style and explored American themes starting in the 1820sThe spirit of reform influenced the transcendentalistsStressed the relationship between humans and nature and the importance of the individual conscienceThe leading transcendentalists were Margaret Fuller, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau
13Section 1Which of the following was a major subject of transcendentalist literature?A. RealismB. The relationship between humans and nature and the importance of the individual conscienceC. Anti-abolitionismD. The relationship between humans and technology and the importance of industrialismABCD
14Cultural Trends Continued Fuller supported women’s rightsEmerson urged people to listen to the inner voice of conscience and to overcome prejudiceThoreau practiced civil disobedience by refusing to obey laws he considered unjust1846 Thoreau went to jail rather than pay a tax to support the Mexican WarMany American poets created great works (Henry Wadsworth, Walt Whitman, and Emily Dickinson)During this time, women were the authors of the most popular fictionHarriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin which explored the injustice of slavery
15Reformers wanted to restrict alcohol Essential QuestionHow did religion influence the social reforms in the United States during the early and mid-1800s?-Inspired people to reform their own lives and improve the ills of societyReformers wanted to restrict alcoholBetter teacher training and school fundingMore collegesMore access to education for women, African Americans, and people with special needsBetter conditions for prisoners and the mentally ill
17Utopias are based on a vision of a perfect society. TrueFalse
18Religious leaders fought for the freedom to drink alcohol. TrueFalse
19In 1839 Massachusetts founded the first state-supported school to train teachers. TrueFalse
20The roles of wife and mother were not roles that most parents wanted for their daughters. TrueFalse
21During the 1820s American artists developed their own style and explored American themes. TrueFalse
22Who opened Hartford School for the deaf in Connecticut in 1817? Samuel Gridley HoweDorothea DixThomas GallaudetHorace Mann
23The first college in the United States to admit women and African Americans was Harvard.Ashmun Institute.Mount Holyoke.Oberlin College of Ohio.
24Who was the schoolteacher who helped reform attitudes toward the mentally ill? Dorothea DixSamuel Gridley HoweGeorge CatlinThomas Gallaudet
25naturalists. transcendentalists. reformers. conscience-raisers. People who stressed the relationship between humans and nature and the importance of the individual conscience were callednaturalists.transcendentalists.reformers.conscience-raisers.
26What writer wrote about the injustice of slavery? Nathaniel HawthorneHerman MelvilleHarriet Beecher StoweWashington Irving