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New Movements in America

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Presentation on theme: "New Movements in America"— Presentation transcript:

1 New Movements in America
Chapter 8, Section 1

2 Religion Sparks Reform
Charles Grandison Finney Led revivals (meetings) to revive (awaken) religious feelings Hundreds to thousands of people would embrace his teachings

3 The Second Great Awakening
Reform movement in the 1820s and 1830s Led by Finney and many other preachers Took place all over the United States, but mainly in the North By 1850, two times as many Americans attended church than they had when America was founded

4 The Second Great Awakening
Many preachers were Protestant Preachers told people that “their destiny lay in their own hands” People were urged to live well and work hard Through dedication and hard work they could create a kind of heaven on earth

5 The Reform Era The Reform Era lasted from 1830-1860
The Second Great Awakening helped launch this Americans wanted to reshape American society People who participated are called reformers

6 The Temperance Movement
Wanted to reduce the use of alcoholic beverages Temperance means moderation Reformers linked the evils of alcohol to sickness, poverty, and the breakup of families 1851-Maine outlawed alcohol, 12 states followed them

7 Reforming Education 1840s most schools were private schools or common schools Common schools were public schools that taught basic reading, writing, and math Teaching in common schools was generally poor, but most families could not afford private school

8 Common School Movement
People wanted more children to be educated Educated people make better decisions and this would be important in a democracy Common school movement wanted to extend and improve public schools

9 Horace Mann A very influential leader of the Reform Era
First Secretary of Education in Massachusetts Wanted all states to fund and supervise locally controlled schools Advocated compulsory attendance Started normal schools—schools where teachers are trained

10 Horace Mann Mann transformed education in Massachusetts
1839-Created the first normal school 1852-Passed first compulsory attendance law in the United States By 1860 six in ten white children attended school in the US Did not help Native American children or African American children

11 William McGuffey Well known education reformer
Wrote textbooks for different grade levels Taught reading and moral and intellectual values

12 Reforming Prisons Dorothea Dix campaigned for humane treatment of prisoners and mentally ill Before reform—mentally ill and nonviolent criminals were confined with violent criminals Prisons were horribly crowded and unsanitary Prisoners were abused by their jailers

13 Reforming Prisons Dix petitioned Massachusetts state legislature for better conditions Created state-supported institutions to house and treat mentally ill people By the time she died more than 100 institutions were built throughout the country to treat the mentally ill

14 Transcendentalism Transcendentalism – the belief that knowledge is found not only by observation of the world, but also through reason, intuition, and personal spiritual experiences By transcending (going beyond) observation, people can have a deeper and truer understanding of the world

15 Ralph Waldo Emerson Leading transcendentalist
Gave sermons and lectures and wrote essays and poems Belief that people should be self-reliant and trust their intuition All people and all of nature are connected

16 Henry David Thoreau Major transcendentalist
Believed in power of self-reliance and individual thought People should act according to their own beliefs even if that meant breaking the law “Civil Disobedience” an essay that beliefs are were used in modern times Martin Luther King Jr. and Gandhi

17 Utopianism Believed in creating new communities that would be free of social ills Utopia – a perfect society Led by Robert Owen – created New Harmony, but society failed within 3 years Brookfarm – Utopian community in Massachusetts that emphasized equality Failed because of debts

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