Reforming Spirit American reformers of the 1800’s wanted to extend the nation’s ideals of liberty and equality to all citizens. They brought changes to American religion, politics, education, art, and literature.
Some reformers formed utopias, communities based on a vision of a perfect society. Robert Owen formed New Harmony, Indiana The Shakers and the Mormons
Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a wave of religious fervor in the early 1800’s people came for miles to hear traveling preachers. Charles Finney The SGA increased church membership and inspired people to become involved in reform movements.
Temperance Movement TEMPERANCE—no alcohol Lyman Beecher Reformers blamed drinking for poverty, the decline of families, crime, and insanity. Organizations like the American Society for the Promotion of Temperance warned of the dangers of drinking. Some states passed laws, but they didn’t last
Education Reform Horace Mann—leader of educational reform In MA, he lengthened the school year to 6 months, made improvements in school curriculum, doubled teacher salaries, got better training for teachers
Education Reform By 1850’s established these principles in every state: 1. Schools should be free and supported by tax dollars 2. teachers should be trained 3. children should be required to attend school
Education Reform - Colleges Many new colleges and universities were built, and some allowed women and African- Americans to attend. Mount Holyoke Ashman Institute
TEACHING PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES Thomas Gallaudet— educated the hearing impaired. Hartford School for the Deaf Dr. Samuel Gridley— educated the visually impaired. Perkins Institute Dorothea Dix— educated the public about the conditions of prisoners and the mentally ill.
Cultural Trends Transcendentalists— art and literature Stressed the relationship between humans and nature and the importance of individual conscience. Fuller, Emerson, Thoreau, Longfellow, Whitman, Dickinson, Stowe
Cultural Trends Civil Disobedience – refusing to obey laws thought unjust and then accepting the consequences for your actions Example: Thoreau refused to pay his taxes during the Mexican War and spent time in jail
Reflection Which social reform do you believe did the most to shape modern society? Why? Which did the least? Why?
ABOLITIONIST—a reformer who worked to abolish, or end, slavery.
By the early 1800’s, slavery was no longer allowed in the North, but it continued in the South. Quakers had worked for many years to try and abolish slavery.
The first significant anti- slavery movement was the American Colonization Society, which attempted to buy slaves from slaveholders and resettle them in the Caribbean and Africa (Liberia).
William Lloyd Garrison started The Liberator (an abolitionist newspaper) in Boston in 1831. His followers started the New England Antislavery Society and the American Antislavery Society. The Grimke sisters were also well- known abolitionists.
Frederick Douglass was a runaway slave who became an influential speaker and writer—his newspaper was called The North Star. He called for an end to slavery and full equality with whites.
Sojourner Truth was born into slavery and named Isabella Bauman. She escaped to the North, changed her name and worked for the abolition of slavery and women’s rights.
Underground Railroad The Underground Railroad was a secret organization to help African-Americans escape from slavery. Runaways traveled by night following the North Star Spent day at “stations” The most famous “conductor” was Harriet Tubman.
OPPOSITION TO THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Not all Northerners supported Abolition: Some feared a civil war between north and south over the issue. Many believed that freed slaves would never fit into American society. Northerners feared that freed slaves would take jobs away from white workers.
OPPOSITION TO THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY Southerners claimed slavery was essential to the South Southerners believed abolition threatened their way of life and would destroy their economy.
Reflection Was the abolitionist movement inevitable? Explain.
Women who worked to end slavery began to recognize their own bondage. Many began a movement to improve women’s lives and win equal rights.
Women and Reform Lucretia Mott Quaker woman and reformer Elizabeth Cady Stanton joined Lucreia Mott and organized the 1 st Women's Rights Convention
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION The Seneca Falls Convention, July 1848 The Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions was issued resembled the Declaration of Independence, b ut stated all men AND women are created equal.
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions: Called for an end to all laws that discriminated against women. Demanded that women be allowed to enter trades, professions, and businesses. Called for women’s suffrage.
Susan B. Anthony Susan B. Anthony called for: 1. Equal Pay for women 2. College training for girls 3. Co-education (teaching boys and girls together) Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony led the women’s movement in the 1800’s, but it wasn’t until 1920 that women go the right to vote.
Reflection Abigail Adams once wrote a letter to her future president “hubby” asking him to “remember the ladies” in 1776. Did the founders of U.S. government do that? Explain.
Breaking Barriers The early feminists, abolitionists, temperance workers and other activists for reform had just begun the long struggle to achieve their goals! …with Liberty and Justice for all.