2 TranscendentalistsTranscendentalism was the belief that people could transcend, or rise above, material things.Transcendentalism became popular with American artists in the mid-1800s.
3 TranscendentalistsImportant transcendentalists included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau.1840s: Some of them tried to form a utopian community at Brook Farm, MAutopian communities are places where people tried to form a perfect society. in reality, most members did not work together well and the communities did not last long.Brook Farm, MA – how perfect
4 Transcendentalists Main Idea 1: Transcendentalists and utopian communities withdrew from American society.
5 American Romanticism Romanticism was a part of transcendentalists. Romantic artists had a deep appreciation for the beauty and wonder of nature.
6 American RomanticismSome Romantic artists, like Thomas Cole, painted the American landscape.Their images were in contrast with the huge cities and corruption that many Americans saw as typical of Europe.Thomas Cole was a Hudson River painter. We learned about these painters in a previous chapter.
14 Second Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening was a Christian renewal movement during 1790s and early 1800s.The religious movement swept upstate New York and frontier regions and later spread to New England and the South.
16 Second Great Awakening Church membership increased significantly during this period.The Second Great Awakening renewed religious faith of people throughout AmericaCharles Grandison Finney was important leader of the movement.
17 Second Great Awakening Main Idea 1:The Second Great Awakening sparked interest in religion.Reform movements in America included religious meetings called revivals, where preachers urged crowds of people to seek salvation.
18 Social Reformers Speak Out Renewed religious faith led to movements to reform society.Members of the middle class, especially women, led the efforts to reform society.They tackled alcohol abuse, prison and education reform, and slavery.
19 Social Reformers Speak Out The Temperance Movement was effort to have people stop drinking hard liquorMany Americans thought alcohol abuse caused family violence, poverty, and criminal behavior.Beer here.Wow. Ill never drink another beer.I’ll take 10!
20 Social Reformers Speak Out Some states passed laws that banned alcohol for awhile, but those laws were later repealed (removed) and those states allowed alcohol again.
21 Social Reformers Speak Out Dorothea Dix led movement to reform prison systemReformers worked to remove the mentally ill, runaway children, and orphans from prisons where many had been put.Governments responded to her reforms by building mental hospitals, reform schools for children, and houses of correction that provided education for prisoners.Dorothea Dix
22 Social Reformers Speak Out Main Idea 2:Social reformers began to speak out about temperance (drinking) and prison reform.
23 Improvements in Education Education in America was lacking in the early 1800sFew teachers were trained, and schoolhouses were small and had only one room for all students.Social background and wealth affected education quality. Wealthy kids received a good education, and poorer kids did not.
24 Improvements in Education New Colleges were created in the 1800s.Most colleges were founded by religious groupsMost were for men only, though slowly some began to accept women
25 Improvements in Education People in the Common-School Movement wanted all children taught in a common place regardless of wealth.Horace Mann was a leader in this movement.He became Massachusetts’s first secretary of educationConvinced the state to double the school budget, raise teachers’ salaries, lengthen the school year, and begin the first school for teacher trainingHe believed education was important for democracy to succeed
28 Improvements in Education Education reform created opportunities for women.1837: The first women’s colleges openedCatharine Beecher started an all-women academy.
29 Improvements in Education Education reform also helped people with special needs.Thomas Gallaudet opened a school for the hearing impaired in 1817; a school for the blind opened in 1831.
30 Improvements in Education Main Idea 3:Improvements in education reform affected many segments of the population.
31 African American Communities Many influential African Americans pushed for the creation of schools for black Americans.New York, Philadelphia, and Boston opened elementary schools for African American children.Few colleges would accept African Americans, however.
32 African American Communities The Free African Religious Society, founded by former slave Richard Allen, became a model for other groups that worked for racial equality and education for blacks.Richard Allen also became the first bishop of the AME Church (African Methodist Episcopal Church)RichardAllen
33 African American Communities In the South, laws barred most enslaved people from receiving any education.