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Limbs (appendages) Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle.

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Presentation on theme: "Limbs (appendages) Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Limbs (appendages) Pectoral Girdle Pelvic Girdle

4 The Appendicular Skeleton – In Bone color Slide 5.32b Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.6c

5 Made up of the bones of the limbs and their girdles –Each limb has 3 major segments connected by movable joints Pectoral girdles –attach the upper limbs to the body trunk Pelvic girdle –secures the lower limbs

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7 Pectoral Girdles Composed of two bones –Clavicle – collarbone –Scapula – shoulder blade

8 Pectoral Girdles These bones allow the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement They provide attachment points for muscles that move the upper limbs

9 Clavicles (Collarbones) The clavicles are slender, doubly curved long bones lying across the superior thorax

10 Clavicles (Collarbones) The acromial (lateral) end articulates with the scapula, and the sternal (medial) end articulates with the sternum

11 Clavicles (Collarbones) Provide attachment points for numerous muscles Act as braces to hold the scapulae and arms out laterally away from the body

12 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) The scapulae are triangular, flat bones lying on the dorsal surface of the rib cage, between the second and seventh ribs

13 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Scapulae have three borders and three angles

14 Scapulae (Shoulder Blades) Major markings include –Suprascapular notch –Supraspinous fossae –Infraspinous fossae –Spine –Acromion –Coracoid process

15 The Upper Limb The upper limb consists of –arm (brachium), –forearm (antebrachium), –hand (manus) Thirty-seven bones form the skeletal framework of each upper limb

16 Arm Arm is formed by a single bone –Humerus Articulates with the scapula at the shoulder, and the radius and ulna at the elbow

17 Arm Major markings (proximal) –Head –Anatomical Neck –Greater tubercles –Lesser tubercles –Intertubercular groove

18 Arm Major markings (distal) –Capitulum –Trochlea –Medial epicondyles –Lateral epicondyles –Coronoid fossae –Olecranon fossae

19 Arm Major markings (medial) –Radial groove –Deltoid process

20 Forearm Has two bones –Ulna –Radius Interosseous membrane connects the two bones along their entire length

21 Forearm Articulates proximally with the humerus Ariculates distally with the wrist bones (Carpus) Articulates with each other proximally and distally

22 Bones of the Forearm Figure 7.24

23 Ulna Lies medially in the forearm when in anatomical position Slightly longer than the radius Forms the major portion of the elbow joint with the humerus

24 Ulna Its major markings include –Olecranon –Coronoid process –Trochlear notch –Radial notch –Styloid process

25 Radius Lies opposite (lateral to) the ulna Thin at its proximal end, widened distally Superior surface of the head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus

26 Radius Medially, the head of the radius articulates with the radial notch of the ulna Major markings include –radial tuberosity –ulnar notch (forms distal radioulnar joint) –styloid process

27 Figure 7.24

28 Hand Skeleton of the hand contains – wrist bones (carpals) –bones of the palm (metacarpals) –bones of the fingers (phalanges) Figure 7.26a

29 Carpus (Wrist) Consists of eight bones –Scaphoid, lunate, triquetral, and pisiform proximally –Trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, and hamate distally

30 Metacarpus (Palm) Five numbered (1-5) metacarpal bones radiate from the wrist to form the palm

31 Metacarpus (Palm) –Their bases articulate with the carpals proximally, and with each other medially and laterally –Heads articulate with the phalanges –Start counting at thumb

32 Phalanges (Fingers) Each hand contains 14 miniature long bones called phalanges Fingers (digits) are numbered 1-5, beginning with the thumb (pollex)

33 Phalanges (Fingers) Each finger (except the thumb) has three phalanges –Distal –Middle –Proximal The thumb has no middle phalanx

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35 Pelvic Girdle (Hip bones) Figure 7.27a

36 Pelvic Girdle Bony Pelvis formed by –Pair of hip bones (coxal bones) –Sacrum –coccyx Attaches lower limbs to the axial skeleton with the strongest ligaments of the body

37 Pelvic Girdle Total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvis –transmits that weight to lower limbs Protects and supports visceral organs

38 Pelvic Girdle The sacral promontory, the anterosuperior margin of the first sacral vertebra, bulges anteriorly into the pelvic cavity. The body’s center of gravity lies about 1 cm posterior to this landmark.

39 Coxal bones Composed of three pair of fused bones –Ilium, Ischium, Pubic bone

40 Ilium Lateral View Large flaring bone that forms the superior region of the coxal bone Consists of a body and a superior winglike portion called the ala Ilium in Yellow

41 Ilium Medial View The broad posterolateral surface is called the gluteal surface The auricular surface articulates with the sacrum (sacroiliac joint) Ilium in Yellow

42 Ilium Major markings include –iliac crests –four spines –greater sciatic notch –iliac fossa –arcuate line –pelvic brim Lateral View – Ilium in Yellow

43 Ischium The ischium forms the posteroinferior part of the hip bone The thick body articulates with the ilium, and the thinner ramus articulates with the pubis Lateral view – Ischium in purple

44 Ischium Major markings include: ischial spine lesser sciatic notch ischial tuberosity Medial view – Ischium in purple

45 Pubis The pubic bone forms the anterior portion of the hip bone It articulates with the ischium and the ilium Lateral view - Pubis in red

46 Pubis Major markings include superior and inferior rami pubic crest pubic tubercle pubic arch pubic symphysis obturator foramen (along with ischium) Medial view – pubis in red

47 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis –Tilted forward, adapted for childbearing Male pelvis –Tilted less forward

48 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis –True pelvis defines birth canal Male pelvis –Adapted for support of heavier male build and stronger muscles

49 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis –Cavity of the true pelvis is broad, shallow, and has greater capacity Male pelvis –Cavity of true pelvis is narrow and deep

50 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis –Lighter, thinner, smoother Male pelvis –Heavier, thicker, more markings

51 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis –Pubic Arch at 80 o - 90 o Male pelvis –Pubic Arch at 50 o - 60 o

52 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis Acetabula small and farther apart (place the femur attaches) Male pelvis Acetabula large and closer together (place the femur attaches)

53 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis Sacrum is wider, shorter; sacral curvature is accentuated Male pelvis Sacrum is narrow, longer; sacral promontory more ventral

54 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure Female pelvis Coccyx is more movable; straighter Male pelvis Coccyx is less movable; curves ventrally

55 Image from Table 7.4 Comparison of Male and Female Pelvic Structure

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57 The Lower Limb The three segments of the lower limb are the thigh, leg, and foot They carry the weight of the erect body, and are subjected to exceptional forces when one jumps or runs

58 Thigh Bone – The Femur The thigh has one bone –Femur Largest and strongest bone in the body Articulates proximally with the coxal bone and distally with the tibia and fibula

59 Thigh Bone – The Femur Major markings include –Head –fovea capitis –greater and lesser trochanters –gluteal tuberosity –lateral and medial condyles and epicondyles –linea aspera –patellar surface –intercondylar notch

60 Femur Figure 7.28b

61 Leg Bones Leg has two bones –Tibia –Fibula Connected to each other by the interosseous membrane

62 Leg Bones They articulate with the femur proximally and with the ankle bones distally They also articulate with each other via the immovable tibiofibular joints

63 Tibia Receives the weight of the body from the femur and transmits it to the foot

64 Tibia Major markings include –medial and lateral condyles –intercondylar eminence –tibial tuberosity –anterior crest –medial malleolus –fibular notch

65 Fibula Sticklike bone with slightly expanded ends located laterally to the tibia Major markings include the head and lateral malleolus

66 Tibia and Fibula Figure 7.29

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68 Foot The Foot Tarsus (ankle) Metatarsus (sole) Phalanges (toes) Figure 7.31a

69 Foot The foot supports body weight and acts as a lever to propel the body forward in walking and running Figure 7.31a

70 Tarsals Composed of seven bones that form the posterior half of the foot Body weight is carried primarily on the talus and calcaneus

71 Tarsals Talus articulates with the tibia and fibula superiorly, and the calcaneus inferiorly

72 Tarsals Other tarsus bones include the cuboid and navicular, and the medial, intermediate, and lateral cuneiforms

73 Calcaneus Forms the heel of the foot Carries the talus on its superior surface Point of attachment for the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon of the calf muscles

74 Metatarsus and Phalanges Metatarsals –Five (1-5) long bones that articulate with the proximal phalanges –The enlarged head of metatarsal 1 forms the “ball of the foot”

75 Metatarsus and Phalanges Phalanges –The 14 bones of the toes –Each digit has three phalanges except the hallux, which has no middle phalanx

76 Arches of the Foot Slide 5.42 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Bones of the foot are arranged to form three strong arches  Two longitudinal  One transverse Figure 5.26

77 Arches of the Foot The foot has three arches maintained by interlocking foot bones and strong ligaments Arches allow the foot to hold up weight

78 The Arches of the Foot –Lateral longitudinal cuboid is keystone of this arch –Medial longitudinal talus is keystone of this arch –Transverse runs obliquely from one side of the foot to the other

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