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Presentation on theme: "SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu"— Presentation transcript:

The Bones of Limbs SHANDONG UNIVERSITY Liu Zhiyu

2 Bones of upper limb Composition: Should girdle Clavicle Scapula
Bones of free upper limb Arm: humerus Forearm Radius Ulna Bones of hand Carpal bones Metacarpal bones Phalanges of fingers

3 Clavicle “S” shaped, medial 2/3 convex forward and lateral 1/3 convex backward Sternal end medially and acromial end laterally

4 Scapula Three borders Three angles Two surfaces
Superior: coracoid process scapular notch Lateral (axillary) border Medial (vertebral) border Three angles Superior: opposite to the 2nd rib Inferior: opposite to the 7th rib or 7th intercostals space Lateral: glenoid cavity supra- and infraglenoid tubercles Two surfaces Anterior surface concave: subscapular fossa Posterior surface: spine of scapula acromion supra- and infraspinous fossae

5 Humerus Upper end: Head of humerus Anatomical neck Greater tubercle
Lesser tubercle Crest of greater tubercle Crest of lesser tubercle Intertubercular groove Surgical neck

6 Shaft: Humerus Deltoid tuberosity (on lateral surface)
Groove for radial nerve (on posterior surface)

7 Humerus Lower end: Lateral epicondyle Medial epicondyle Capitulum
Trochlea Coranoid fossa (anteriorly) Radial fossa (anteriorly) Olecranon fossa (posteriorly) Sulcus for ulnar nerve

8 Radius Upper end: Shaft: Lower end: head of radius neck of radius
radial tuberosity articular circumference Shaft: interosseous border Lower end: styloid process (laterally) ulnar notch (medially) carpal articular surface (inferiorly)

9 Ulnar Upper end: Lower end Olecranon coronoid process trochlear notch
radial notch ulnar tubersity Lower end styloid process head of ulna

10 Anteroposterior radiograph of the forearm of a girl aged 11

11 Colles’ fracture Normally, the radial styloid process projects further distally than the ulnar styloid process. Consequently, when fracture within the distal 2 cm of the radius (Colles’ fracture) occurs, this relationship is reversed because of shortening of the radius.

12 Carpal bones Proximal row ― (lateral to medial)
Scaphoid Lunate Triquetral Pisiform Distal row ― (lateral to medial) Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

13 Carpal bones Td. Tm. C. H. Tq. S. L. P.
scaphoid, lunate, triquetral and pisiform trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate

14 Metacarpal bones Structure of each
Numbered one to five from thumb to little finger Structure of each base (proximally) Shaft head (distally)

15 Phalanges of fingers Consist of 14 ―two for first digit (thumb) and three for each of other four digits Structure of each base (proximally) Shaft trochlea of phalanx (distally) tuberosity of distal phalanx


17 Bones of Lower Limb Composition: Pelvic girdle: hip bone
Bones of free lower limb: Thigh Femur Patella Leg Tibia Fibula Foot Tarsal bones Metatarsal bones Phalanges of toes

18 Hip bone Consisting of three fused bones Acetabulum Ilium Ischium
Pubis Acetabulum Formed by bodies of ilium, ischium and pubis Lunate surface Acetabular fossa Acetabular notch

19 Ilium Body of ilium Ala of ilium Iliac crest
Anterior superior iliac spine Anterior inferior iliac spine Tubercle of iliac crest Posterior superior iliac spine Posterior inferior iliac spine Greater sciatic notch Gluteal surface Iliac fossa Arcuate line Auricular surface Iliac tuberosity

20 An imaginary line joining the highest point on the iliac crests over the fourth lumbar spine.

21 Ischium Body of ischium Ischial spine Lesser sciatic notch
Ramus of ischium ischial tuberosity

22 Pubis Body of pubis Superior ramus of pubis Inferior ramus of pubis
Iliopubic eminence Superior ramus of pubis pecten of pubis pubic tubercle pubic crest symphysial surface Inferior ramus of pubis Obturator foramen

23 Femur Upper end Femoral head Fovea of femoral head Neck of femur
Greater trochanter Lesser trochanter Intertrochanteric line Intertrochanteric crest

24 Fracture of the femoral neck

25 Femur Shaft: Linea aspera Gluteal tuberosity Pectineal line
Popliteal surface

26 Femur Lower end: Medial condyle Lateral condyle Medial epicondyle
Lateral epicondyle Adductor tubercle Intercondylar fossa Patellar surface

27 Tibia Upper end: Shaft Lower end: Medial and lateral condyles
Intercondylar eminence fibular articular surface tuberosity of tibia Shaft Interosseous border Soleal line Lower end: Fibular notch Medial malleolus

28 Fibula Upper end: Shaft: Lower end: fibular head neck of fibula
interosseous border Lower end: lateral malleolus

29 Patella triangular sesamoid bone

30 Tarsal bones Posterior row Intermediate row Anterior row talus
Consist of seven short bones arranged in three row Posterior row talus calcaneus Intermediate row navicular bone Anterior row Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform lateral cuneiform cuboid bone

31 Metatarsal bones Consist of five elongated bones, numbered one to five medial to lateral Structure of each ―base (proximally), shaft, and head (distally) in each

32 Phalanges of toes ※Surface landmarks:
Consist of 14―two for first toe (hallux) and three for each of other four toes ※Surface landmarks: trochlea of talus calcaneal tuberosity tuberosity of navicular bone tuberosity of fifth metatarsal bone

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