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Short Field Takeoff & Landing. Takeoff Objective - Knowledge of elements Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and steepest.

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Presentation on theme: "Short Field Takeoff & Landing. Takeoff Objective - Knowledge of elements Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and steepest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Short Field Takeoff & Landing

2 Takeoff Objective - Knowledge of elements Positive and accurate control of aircraft with shortest ground roll and steepest angle of climb Proper airspeeds V R, V X, and V Y

3 Takeoff Best angle of climb results in greatest gain of altitude for a given distance over the ground Speed deviations of +5/-0 can reduce climb performance significantly

4 Takeoff Climb above obstacle or 50 ft AGL before accelerating to V Y by reducing pitch

5 Takeoff Knowledge of performance charts –Temperature Pressure –runway lengthwind –type of runway surface –weight and condition of airplane

6 Takeoff Associated Condition –Power –Mixture –Flap Setting

7 Takeoff Margin of Safety –Remove fuel, people, or baggage –Wait for different wind/or temperature –Find a more experienced pilot –Move airplane to a safer takeoff location

8 Takeoff Perform Maneuver Position flight controls and flaps for the existing conditions –Crosswind - full deflection of ailerons –Flaps set - verify visually

9 Takeoff Clear the area and position aircraft for maximum available takeoff area –traffic pattern and runway clear –Back taxi to very beginning of runway

10 Takeoff –ground reference points Advance throttle to takeoff power, while holding the brakes –Recheck mixture and propeller high RPM –Add takeoff power avoiding engine surging, backfiring and

11 Takeoff –overboost situations and release brakes smoothly –Monitor engine instruments for malfunctions or indications of insufficient power –Listen for engine roughness or power loss

12 Takeoff –Abort if indications are not normal –Check airspeed indicator and call out airspeeds Rotate at the recommended speed –

13 Takeoff –Speed may vary with weight. Check POH –Rotation speed should be approximately 5 KTS below the lift off speed

14 Takeoff –At V R smoothly apply back elevator pressure to raise the nose to the pitch attitude that will produce the best angle-of-climb airspeed V X

15 Takeoff –Do not attempt to raise the nose until VR because this will create unnecessary drag Climb at the manufacturer’s recommended airspeed and configuration

16 Takeoff –low airspeed pitch too high –higher airspeed pitch is too low –on airspeed at optimum speed –Learn pitch attitude - nose in relation to the horizon and attitude indicator

17 Takeoff –Maintain V X =5/-0 KTS After clearing the obstacle accelerate to V Y +5/-5 Retract the landing gear and flaps after a positive rate of climb or as recommended

18 Takeoff –Before retracting the gear, apply the brakes to stop the rotation of the wheels –Retract as recommended by the manufacturer –Some recommend after a positive rate of climb,

19 Takeoff –some recommend after clearing the obstacle –Generally not good to be looking in the cockpit until obstacle clearance is assured –In some airplanes, drag of gear is insignificant

20 Takeoff –Normally landing gear is retracted prior to flap retraction –Flaps normally retracted when you are clear of the obstacle and when V Y is established –Raise flaps in increments to avoid sudden loss of lift and settling of the airplane

21 Takeoff –Make pitch adjustment during gear and flap retraction to maintain V Y Maintain takeoff power to safe maneuvering altitude, then set climb power

22 Takeoff –After establishing VY, retracting gear and flaps maintain takeoff power to 500 feet –Reduce MP and RPM to climb power –Maintain V Y until 1000 feet transition to cruise climb

23 Takeoff Maintain directional control and proper wind-drift correction throughout the takeoff and climb

24 Takeoff –Common error is to become preoccupied with the short field takeoff and neglect crosswind correction Complete the appropriate checklists, both before takeoff and climb

25 Common Takeoff Errors Failure to use the entire runway Improper positioning of the flight controls and wing flaps Improper engine operation during short field takeoff and climb out

26 Common Takeoff Errors Inappropriate removal of hand from throttle Poor directional control Improper use of brakes

27 Common Takeoff Errors Improper pitch attitude during liftoff Failure to establish and maintain proper climb configuration and airspeed Drift during climb out

28 Short Field Landing Exhibit knowledge of the elements related to a short field approach and landing –Short landing area or over an obstacle that limits the available landing area

29 Short Field Landing –Precise, positive control of your airplane’s rate of descent and airspeed to produce an approach that will clear obstacle, result in little or no float, and stop in the shortest possible distance –Think ahead. Don’t land where you cannot takeoff

30 Short Field Landing Consider the wind conditions, landing surface and obstructions –Height of obstructions dictate how steep the approach will have to be

31 Short Field Landing –Surface may affect the breaking distance –Headwind may shorten the distance –Know POH landing speed –Know landing distance –Pump brakes to insure you have brake pressure

32 Short Field Landing Select the most suitable touchdown point –Select an aim point that will allow you to clear obstacles and touch down with the greatest amount of runway available

33 Short Field Landing –Descent angle will be steeper than a normal approach. Aim point will be closer to the obstacle –Aim point will be short of the touchdown point –Select a go around point, normally before descending below barriers

34 Landing Comparison Temperature 15 O C Pressure S.L. Ground rollOver 50 foot Obstacle C Sundowner Bonanza

35 Short Field Landing Establish the recommended approach and landing configuration and adjust power and pitch as required

36 Short Field Landing –After landing gear and flaps are extended adjust power and pitch to give you the proper descent angle and airspeed –Coordinated combination of pitch and power adjustments are required

37 Short Field Landing –Approach must be stabilized –Avoid excessively slow airspeed –Avoid low slow approaches –Final approach from 3/4 to 1 mile from 500 feet

38 Short Field Landing Maintain a stabilized approach at the recommended airspeed or 1.3 V SO with a gust factor of +5/-5

39 Short Field Landing –Maintain glide path and airspeed –Airspeed based on landing weight –Reduce power while rounding out

40 Short Field Landing –After landing gear and flaps are extended adjust power and pitch to give you the proper descent angle and airspeed

41 Short Field Landing –Coordinated combination of pitch and power adjustments are required Approach must be stabilized –Excess airspeed will cause floating and cause you to miss your touchdown spot

42 Short Field Landing Make smooth, timely and correct control applications during the round out and touchdown Remain aware of the possibility of wind shear and/or wake turbulence

43 Short Field Landing Touch down at or within 100 feet of the specified point, little or no float or drift with the longitudinal axis aligned with and over the center of the landing surface

44 Short Field Landing –Round out to avoid flying into the ground or ballooning and stalling –During round out reduce the throttle to idle –Touch down within 100 feet of the specified point

45 Short Field Landing Maintain crosswind correction and directional control throughout the approach and landing Apply brakes to stop in the shortest distance

46 Short Field Landing –Once main gear are solidly on the ground begin braking while maintaining full back elevator pressure –Keep weight off nose gear

47 Short Field Landing –Some aircraft benefit from retracting flaps but could cause you to misidentify a control and lead to a gear up landing

48 Short Field Landing Complete the appropriate checklists –BCGUMPS –Check brakes –After Landing checklist

49 Common Errors Improper use of landing performance data and limitations Failure to establish approach landing configuration at appropriate time or in proper sequence

50 Common Errors Failure to maintain a stabilized approach Improper technique in use of power, wing flaps and trim

51 Common Errors Improper removal of hand from throttle Improper technique during round out and touchdown

52 Common Errors Poor directional control after touchdown Improper use of brakes


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