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Contact Maneuvers. Overview Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures.

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Presentation on theme: "Contact Maneuvers. Overview Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Contact Maneuvers

2 Overview Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures

3 Takeoffs Hovering Flight Normal Maximum Performance Marginal Power

4 Hovering Flight Per Task 1017, Army TC 1-211/23 FTS ATL –Vertical ascent to hover altitude of 4 feet, +/-1 foot –Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees –Drift not to exceed 1 foot on hover takeoff, 2 feet while stationary, during turns, or moving forward, sideward, or rearward, no drift lateral or rearward on landing from hover –Turns flown with constant rate of turn not to exceed 90 degrees in 4 seconds

5 Normal Takeoff Aircraft exposure time in avoid area of height velocity diagram minimized Takeoff may be started from the ground or hover –Maintain takeoff heading with pedals +/- 10 degrees (wing low method if necessary) below 50 ft. –Apply takeoff power 3 psi above hover power, maintain +/- 1 psi –Apply forward cyclic to attain 70 KIAS by 100’ AGL or as necessary to clear obstacles by 10’, maintain 70 KIAS +/- 10 in climb –Place aircraft in trim after climb established and clear barriers

6 Marginal Power Takeoff Takeoff accomplished from a hover/ground with hover power simulated max power available –Brief 50’ simulated obstacle and abort point –Maintain takeoff power of hover torque +/- 1 psi –Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear barriers –Apply forward cyclic to accelerate forward from hover –Passing through ETL, enter and maintain climb to clear obstacles, maintain a/s at or above ETL (can accelerate to max R/C airspeed); do not allow a/s to drop below trans lift as critical settling to ground may occur –Upon passing 50’agl (simulated obstacle), accelerate w/o descending through 50 kts, the maneuver is terminated and increase power and airspeed to establish standard 70 KIAS climb, a/c in trim

7 Maximum Performance Takeoff Takeoff from ground or hover with OGE power available –Brief simulated 100’ obstacle and abort point –Maintain takeoff power (6 psi above hover for stagefield, as required for remote site) +/- 1 psi –Maintain takeoff heading +/- 10 degrees until clear obstacles –Establish slightly nose low attitude (40 K, skids level) in climb to safely clear obstacle by 10’, then accelerate to 70 KIAS without descending, a/c in trim –Upon reaching 70 KIAS, adjust power and attitude for normal climb –Maintain power setting until termination of maneuver; can use other pilot to call out power settings

8 Approaches Normal Approach Steep Approach Shallow Approach Slide Landing Approach to Touchdown

9 Normal Approach Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS, 30 degree apparent angle –At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed –Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds) –Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft) –Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft –Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for nose centered over spot at termination)

10 Normal Approach Note –Exercise care to avoid tail low attitudes near ground..at 12 deg nose up attitude the tail skid and rear skids could contact the ground simultaneously

11 Steep Approach Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/30 K groundspeed, 45 degree apparent angle –Initiate approach with 30 k groundspeed, +/- 5 k –At desired angle, lower collective to start approach, maintain apparent angle at which approach is started throughout approach –Use collective to control angle and rate of descent, cyclic to control rate of closure –Coordinate controls to effect a smooth transition to zero groundspeed over intended spot (nose centered over landing spot) –800 fpm maximum rate of descent below 30 KIAS –Reducing forward speed to 0, with rates of descent in excess of 800 fpm may result in setting with power –Terminate within 10ft of intended hover/touchdown spot

12 Shallow Approach Enter approach from base altitude (300 ft)/70 KIAS, 10 degree apparent angle –At desired angle, lower collective to establish a descent, start gradual reduction of airspeed/groundspeed –Power required, aircraft attitude, approach speed will vary (different aircraft weights, density altitude, winds) –Rate of closure (brisk walk) controlled primarily by cyclic, adjust so ETL lost as aircraft enters ground effect (about 50 ft) –Coordinate collective and cyclic to maintain angle/decrease speed, wing low method to maintain groundtrack/alignment below 50 ft –Allow for smooth transition to zero groundspeed at 3-5 ft hover over landing spot (aim for mast centered over spot at termination)

13 Slide Landing Normally used in conjunction with shallow approach –Plan the approach to near end of landing area, touchdown with airspeed at or slightly above translational lift –Touchdown must occur in the first two-thirds of landing area –At hover altitude, establish landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude), smoothly fly aircraft to the ground –Collective as necessary to cushion the landing, maintain directional control with the tail rotor pedals and cyclic as required –Heading aligned with landing direction +/- 5 deg –Collective slowly reduced to allow skid friction to stop aircraft; an abrupt reduction of collective may cause helicopter to nose over and result in the rotor contacting the fuselage

14 Approach to Touchdown Made from any desired angle, used when there is a shortage of power, possibility of restriction to visibility (blowing snow/sand/grass), or anytime hovering is not desired. –Touchdown area must be clear of obstructions and nearly level –Touchdown at zero, or near zero groundspeed, landing attitude (very slightly nose high, hover attitude) –Smoothly fly aircraft to ground

15 Traffic Pattern Flight Enter traffic pattern on 45 deg angle to center of downwind leg, or as directed by ATC –Maintain straight ground track using crab method, aircraft in trim –Maintain rate of climb/descent +/- 100 fpm, airspeed +/- 10 KIAS (90KIAS downwind/70KIAS crosswind/base), altitudes +/- 100 feet (500’ agl downwind, 300’ agl base or stagefield altitudes published in In-Flight Guide), roll out on desired hdg +/- 10 deg –Pilot on controls primarily focused outside, all other crewmembers assist as requested - clear all turns prior to beginning turn – Utilize proper power management to climb, level off, and descend as appropriate

16 Emergency Procedures Straight-Ahead Autorotation Autorotation with Turn

17 Straight-Ahead Autorotation Practice autorotation terminated with power, but should be planned as though an actual to a touchdown –To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim (coordinated flight) –Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent –Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed; wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent prior to flare –Initiate flare at feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position –No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’ –Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift

18 Straight-Ahead Autorotation Standards –Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl) –Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS –Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point –Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever – KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at feet –Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application –Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement –Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed –Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift

19 Turning Autorotation Practice autorotation with 180 deg turn terminated with power, but should be planned as an actual to a touchdown –To enter, smoothly lower collective to minimum, reduce throttle to flight idle, apply right pedal to maintain trim, start turn to lane –Verbalize the underlined steps, check for normal engine instrument readings and rotor in the green during descent –Adjust aircraft attitude to attain desired glide speed (if a/s decreases during turn do not dive excessively), continue turn toward landing area –Must have wings level, min of 70 KIAS, rotor in green, normal (< 3000fpm) rate of descent, aligned with lane no lower than 150’AGL prior to flare (minor heading corrections on final allowed) –Initiate flare at feet with smooth aft cyclic application (reduce rate of descent and groundspeed, allow rotor to build), once established slowly rotate throttle to full-open position –No lower than 25’, rotate aircraft to landing (hover attitude, very slightly nose high) attitude, initial power pull at 15-20’ –Terminate with power no lower than 4’ above ground, 0-15 k gs, no lateral drift

20 Turning Autorotation Standards –Entry altitude +/- 100 feet (Min straight 500’agl; turning 800’agl) –Entry airspeed 90KIAS +/- 10 KIAS –Verbalize underlined steps, select correct entry point –Rotor within limits (in green) throughout entire manuever –Maintain airspeed during descent 80 KIAS +/- 20 during turn – KIAS at flare entry, flare initiated at feet –Heading alignment within +/- 10 deg during power application –Smooth, precise controlled aircraft movement –Terminate no lower than 4’ with less than 15 k groundspeed –Landing attitude at termination with no lateral drift

21 Autorotations Warnings –Ensure collective at minimum setting to maintain rotor in limits and throttle application smooth when advancing throttle to full open; reduces stress applied to sprag clutch –Avoid low airspeed/high vertical descent during final portion; engine power/rotor inertia may not be sufficient to safely recover the aircraft Notes –If at any time the success of the autorotation is in doubt initiate a immediate power recovery and/or go-around –Key elements for a successful autorotation are suitable glide speed and aircraft trim –Slight amount of back pressure on cyclic during turn will aid in getting through the turn and avoid diving

22 Summary Introduction Takeoffs Approaches Traffic Patterns Emergency Procedures


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