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NIGHT CIRCUITS Night Circuits. Aim To introduce the correct technique and procedures for conducting night circuits in the C172.

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Presentation on theme: "NIGHT CIRCUITS Night Circuits. Aim To introduce the correct technique and procedures for conducting night circuits in the C172."— Presentation transcript:

1 NIGHT CIRCUITS Night Circuits

2 Aim To introduce the correct technique and procedures for conducting night circuits in the C172

3 Objectives Correctly from memory: Recall the night VFR aircraft and aerodrome lighting requirements Recall the YBCG night operational requirements State the correct technique for conducting a night VFR circuit Recall the factors that can affect our night vision

4 Revision Recall the physiological factors that affect us as pilots during instrument flight Recall the techniques that we can use to minimise these illusions during flight Recall go around procedure.

5 What is a night circuit? Normal circuit Conducted at a suitable airfield Between the end and beginning of day light

6 Maximising night vision Avoid strong glare during the day, especially sand or snow Avoid white light, especially fluoro lights Reduce cockpit lighting to maximise night vision Do not look straight ahead into an oncoming light source Remember Night vision can take up to 30 minutes to return to maximum efficiency

7 Factors Affecting Night Vision Anything that reduces the amount of oxygen available in the bloodstream will also reduce night vision Smoking Alcohol Head cold Altitude Fatigue Medication

8 Lighting Requirements Aircraft internal lighting Aircraft external lighting Aerodrome lighting Additional lighting

9 Lighting Requirements LIGHT INTENSITY CONTROL PASSENGER COMPARTMENT LIGHTING PILOT COMPARTMENT LIGHT \ MAP LIGHT INSTRUMENT ILLUMINATION EMERGENCY LIGHTING TORCH

10 Port Starboard Strobes White light Red Rotating light Taxi / Landing light 110° 140° Lighting Requirements

11 Green to red is unsafe Red to green is unsafe Green to green may be safe Red to red may be safe Solid white may be safe

12 AERODROME LIGHTING Runway end lighting (departure) Runway edge lighting Windsock lighting Runway end lighting (approach) Obstacle lighting Runway threshold identification lights T-VASIS

13 Aerodrome Lighting Holding point lights Taxi-way centreline lighting Taxi-way edge lighting Apron lighting

14 Lighting Information ERSA FAC Specific aerodrome lighting AERODROME AND APPROACH LIGHTING RWY 14/32MIRLPAL+AFRU 118.7SDBY PWR AVBL RWY 14/32RTIL RWY 14/32T-VASISPAL+AFRU DEG 39FTSDBY PWR AVBL PAL lighting timing is critical. Recommended three one-second pulses to activate. OTHER LIGHTING ABNALTN 8 WG

15 Aircraft Performance Colder air temperature Denser atmosphere Engine Performance increased Aerodynamic Performance increased

16 Application

17 Ground Operations Pre-flight –During the day –Serviceability of all lights internal and external Taxiing –The speed can be difficult to judge –Use area illuminated by nav lights on wingtips to assess taxi speed…..Be very careful –Taxi at slow walking speed Turn off taxi light for oncoming taxi traffic

18 Beginning the Night Circuit Taxi light remains on until the take-off clearance has been given then the landing light is switched on Enter the runway as normal and align the nose wheel with the runway centreline Focus on the end of the runway

19 FOCUS

20 Rotate At 55kts increase the back pressure. –Be very smooth with the amount of back pressure used Once the nose wheel has rotated, pitch the nose to 8° - 10° on the AI and hold Confirm a positive rate of climb on two instruments After takeoff go completely onto your instruments

21 POSITIVE RATE OF CLIMB

22 Upwind Maintain wings level on the instruments until 500ft AGL Visually check for traffic on crosswind before the turn Once the turn has been cleared –Conduct a rate 1 turn on instruments. –Trust your instruments All turns roll out on specific headings so think ahead –Crosswind 90° to runway heading by looking at DI

23 Crosswind Once the turn has been completed, roll wings level on the AI and continue the climb Visually confirm the circuit spacing and adjust accordingly (slowly) Return your focus to the instruments and continue to climb on crosswind

24

25 14 VISUAL / INSTRUMENT COMBINATION STRICTLY INSTRUMENTS

26 Downwind Normal circuit dimensions and procedures Heading Height Spacing Speed Before landing checks: –Instruments now include DI aligned to compass Suction (gyroscopic instruments), amps/volts (electrically driven flight instruments)

27 14 VISUAL / INSTRUMENT COMBINATION STRICTLY INSTRUMENTS

28 Base Turn Visually clear the path prior to turning Normal circuit dimensions and procedures –I.E. Flap and speed as required Conduct a rate 1 turn onto base

29 14 VISUAL / INSTRUMENT COMBINATION STRICTLY INSTRUMENTS

30 Turning Final Normal circuit dimensions and procedures –I.E. Flap and speed as required Conduct a rate 1 turn and use a mixture of instruments and visual Maintain a visual with runway lights from this point onwards Adjust descent profile as required and maintain runway centreline

31 14 VISUAL / INSTRUMENT COMBINATION STRICTLY INSTRUMENTS

32 Final Aiming point (T-VASIS) Adjust descent profile as required and maintain runway centreline Same technique as visual approach at day Use runway perspective to assess profile

33 Australian Wings Academy Version 2 amd 0 Normal Approach

34 Australian Wings Academy Version 2 amd 0 High Approach

35 Australian Wings Academy Version 2 amd 0 Low Approach

36 Landing Technique Continue the approach until the runway edge lights spread around the engine cowling and begin to appear as one solid line Smoothly reduce power to idle Do not fixate on the area illuminated by the landing light Transition to straight and level and select an aiming point on the upwind end of the runway Smoothly continue to raise the nose until the engine cowling is placed on the end runway lights

37 The Landing Roll Once the aircraft is on the ground: –Apply brakes as required to slow the aircraft to a walking pace –Maintaining the runway centreline with rudder as required If for a touch and go: –Identify the flap selector and move to the take-off position –Say to yourself flaps identified and up –Re-trim for take-off –Smoothly apply full power and repeat

38 Emergency Situations at Night Electrical problems –High demand on electrical system Reduce electrical load –Ensure torch is ready –Failure of the electrical system will not effect the operation of the engine Electrically driven flight instruments and flaps will fail to work

39 Emergency Situations at Night Engine failure at night –Greater difficulty selecting a suitable forced landing area Although a full moon may give adequate illumination –Use of local knowledge –Worst case scenario Trim for best glide speed descend into wind and minimise the touchdown speed Landing light on

40 Radio Failure –Same procedure as day operations. –Use mobile phone if radio is un-serviceable Emergency Situations at Night


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