2 Performance GraphsTransitioning to the Piper Seminole will require you learn how to use different performance graphs. You may have some experience utilizing these graphs from commercial ground school. We will discuss how to use a takeoff distance and landing distance graph. By understanding how to use these graphs, you should be able to use the climb performance and accelerate-stop graphs found in the Seminole POH/AFM or PIM.
3 Takeoff Distance Graph Start with the temperature and move up to the pressure altitude, then draw a line to the right to the reference line.From the reference line draw a line proportionally down to the applicable weight.From the reference line, draw a line to the headwind or tailwind component.From the reference line, draw a line directly to the right of takeoff roll. Draw a line up to the 50 line for 50’ obstacle clearance distance.
4 Landing Distance Graph Start with the temperature and move up to the pressure altitude, then draw a line to the right to the reference line.From the reference line draw a line proportionally down to the applicable weight.From the reference line, draw a line to the headwind or tailwind component.From the reference line, draw a line directly to the right of landing roll. Draw a line up to the 50 line for 50’ obstacle clearance distance.
5 Multi-Engine Performance In this section you’ll learn the basics of:Accelerate-stop distanceAccelerate-goClimb gradientAll-engine service ceilingSingle-engine service ceilingAccelerate Stop/GoClimb Gradient
6 Accelerate Stop & Accelerate Go Distance Accelerate-Stop Distance is the runway length required to accelerate to VR, experience an engine failure, and bring the airplane to a complete stop. Accelerate-Go Distance is the horizontal distance required to continue the takeoff and climb to 50 feet, assuming an engine failure at VR.
7 Climb GradientClimb Gradient. A slope most frequently expressed in terms of altitude gain per 100 feet of horizontal distance, whereupon it is stated as a percentage. Climb gradient may also be expressed as a function of altitude gain per nautical mile, as a ratio of horizontal distance to vertical distance.Unlike rate of climb, climb gradient is affected by wind. Climb gradient is improved with a headwind component, and reduced with a tailwind component.
8 Service Ceilings & Zero Fuel Weight All-Engine Service Ceiling. The highest altitude, for multi-engine airplanes, at which the airplane can maintain a steady rate of climb of 100 f.p.m. with both engines operating. The airplane has reached its absolute ceiling when climb is no longer possible. Single-Engine Service Ceiling is reached when the multi-engine airplane can no longer maintain a 50 f.p.m. rate of climb with one engine inoperative, and its single-engine absolute ceiling when climb is no longer possible. Zero Fuel Weight The maximum allowable weight of the airplane and payload, assuming there is no usable fuel on board. If a zero fuel weight is published, then all weight in excess of that figure must consist of usable fuel. The purpose of a zero fuel weight is to limit load forces on the wing spars with heavy fuselage loads.
9 Takeoff Considerations Prior to every flight calculating accurate ground roll, all engine climb performance, single-engine climb performance and accelerate stop-distances will keep you safe while flying multi-engine airplanes. Understanding how the aircraft should perform will allow the pilot to make a decision of what actions to take during an engine failure during takeoff prior to ever starting the takeoff roll. For example: A light twin flying during a hot, humid day will probably calculate a marginal all engine climb performance and the single-engine climb performance may be very little or none at all. Understanding how the aircraft will perform with one engine inoperative prior to flying will allow the pilot to make the decision to abort a takeoff, or, if airborne, to attempt to land straight ahead, as the aircraft will be unlikely to climb to a safe altitude and return to the airport. Safety Considerations: It is advisable to only use airports which have runway lengths of at least accelerate-stop distance for the specific aircraft flown. During any takeoff in a light twin, if an engine failure occurs and the gear has not been selected up, the takeoff should be rejected, even if airborne. If the gear is extended or in transit, the drag created will significantly reduced climb performance.
10 Engine FailuresMost of your multi-engine training will be about decision making and emergencies. One of the major emergencies you will train for is an engine failure. You will train on how to deal with engine failures during all phases of flight. Depending on what phase of flight the engine fails and the aircraft performance for that day, your actions will be different. When an engine fails, you must act promptly to maintain aircraft control and minimize any descent that may occur. The following slides will discuss how to handle engine failures during various phases of flight.
11 Engine Failure Memory Items Non-Specific Phase of Flight Engine Loss ProceduresSay All, Do Applicable Only –Maintain directional controlPower Up:Mixtures full richPropellers full forwardThrottles full powerClean Up:Retract flapsRetract landing gearIdentify:The inoperative engine (“Dead foot, dead engine”)Verify:Slowly reduce power on the suspected inoperative engine, if there are no changes ,then continue to reduce power.Fix/Feather:Decide whether to attempt a fix (troubleshoot) or feather the inoperative engine. If sufficient altitude exists, troubleshoot, otherwise feather.Secure:Secure the inoperative engine in accordance with the POH/AFM.Save:Conserve the good engine. If you’re able to maintain level flight at reduced power setting, then reduce the power on the operative engine. This will save fuel.- Memorize -Power UpClean UpIdentifyVerifyFixFeatherSecureSave
12 Engine Failure Bank Angles There are two different kinds of bank angles used during an engine failure.Low Speed Bank Angle:To maintain directional control of a multi-engine airplane with an engine failure at low speeds (such as a climb), momentarily bank at least 5 degrees and a maximum of 10 degrees towards the operative engine as the pitch attitude for VYSE is set, then…Zero Sideslip Bank Angle:To obtain the best climb performance, the airplane must be flown at VYSE and zero sideslip, with the failed engine feathered and maximum available power from the operating engine. Zero sideslip is approximately 2 degrees of bank towards the operating engine and one-third to one-half ball deflection towards the operative engine.
13 Engine Failure – During Takeoff Roll If an engine fails during the takeoff roll, prior to rotation, the pilot should promptly close both throttles and maintain directional control with rudder, nosewheel steering and brakes. Aggressive use of rudder, nosewheel steering and brakes may be required to keep the airplane on the runway. The objective of the pilot during an engine failure during takeoff roll and prior to rotation is not to stop the aircraft in the shortest distance, but to maintain directional control of the airplane as it decelerates. It may be preferable to continue into an overrun area under control versus attempting to stop in the shortest distance and blowing a tire out due to aggressive brake use or risking a landing gear collapse all of which could lead to further loss of directional control. Operational Notes: If the engine fails during takeoff roll, prior to VR, close both throttles immediately and use rudder and brakes to maintain directional control.
14 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Experiencing an engine failure at this point is the most difficult and precarious situation. A number of factors will determine your course of action, such as single-engine climb performance, remaining runway available, whether the landing gear is retracted or extended and obstructions along the departure path. Due to the number of variable to consider pilots/crews must brief engine failure procedures during takeoff prior to every departure, even if they’re practicing multiple takeoffs and landings. To be aware of single-engine climb performance the pilot/crew must conduct thorough preflight performance calculations and retain the information. The following slides will discuss three engine-failure situations and the actions required by the pilot. Note, these are broad actions, refer to the POH/AFM for specific manufacturer procedures.
16 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Landing Gear Down If the engine failure occurs prior to selecting the landing gear to the UP position, close both throttles and land on the remaining runway or overrun. Maintaining directional control is the first priority, which makes retracting the gear, flaps, feathering the propeller and accelerating impractical while so close to the ground, as you’re attention will be diverted inside the cockpit rather than outside.
17 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Landing Gear Selected UP, Inadequate SE Climb Performance If the landing gear is selected up, yet the aircraft cannot climb adequately with one engine inoperative the pilot must land ahead. Preflight SE climb performance calculations will allow the pilot to understand how the aircraft should perform, so he/she is prepared ahead of time for this event. Landing under control is paramount. Analysis of accident data has found that there is a high success rate of pilots to maintain aircraft control and land in overrun areas or off-airport as compared to those to attempt flights beyond the aircraft performance capability. Operational Notes: Know how your aircraft should climb with one engine inoperative, then remember the numbers from the POH/AFM were ascertained with an experienced test pilot flying a well maintained aircraft.Note: The landing gear hydraulic system on some twin engine aircraft is engine driven and may be linked to one engine only. If the engine that landing gear hydraulic system is coupled with fails, retracting the landing gear may result in hundreds of feet lost while the pilot allows the inoperative engine that is tied to the landing gear hydraulic system to windmill and build up hydraulic pressure for landing gear retraction.
18 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Landing Gear Selected UP, Adequate SE Climb Performance If the single-engine rate of climb is adequate, the procedures for continued flight should be followed. There are four areas of concern: Control, Configuration, Climb and Checklist.Control:Maintain aircraft control.Pitch for VYSE.Use appropriate engine failure bank angles.Configuration:Memory items – power up, clean up, identify, verify, feather, secure.Note: Skip fix and save, time doesn’t allow for troubleshooting and you’ll want maximum power from the operative engine while so close to the ground.Climb:Establish zero sideslipClimb straight ahead to 500’ AGL prior to turning.Note: Make shallow turns when returning for the airport. While turning, climb performance will decrease, shallow banks will minimize the loss of the vertical component of lift.Checklist:After completing the memory items, review the applicable checklist.
19 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Landing Gear Selected UP, Adequate SE Climb Performance
20 Engine Failure – After Lift-Off Summary If an engine fails during takeoff roll, you can see that your actions will vary with the landing gear position and single-engine climb performance. We know from flying other aircraft the after liftoff and initial climb are quite tasking on the pilot, leaving little time for a decision to be made. To place the pilot/crew in the engine failure emergency mindset, an engine failure brief must be completed prior to each takeoff in a multi-engine airplane. During the engine failure briefing, you must understand what your are saying, not just repeating emergency procedures that have been rote memorized. The engine failure briefing prior to departure is your chance to decide what your actions will be before the engine failure happens. During an engine failure is a bad time to determine the correct actions.Note: The landing gear hydraulic system on some twin engine aircraft is engine driven and may be linked to one engine only. If the engine that landing gear hydraulic system is coupled with fails, retracting the landing gear may result in hundreds of feet lost while the pilot allows the inoperative engine that is tied to the landing gear hydraulic system to windmill and build up hydraulic pressure for landing gear retraction.